Main Article Content
The silver catfish Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus is of economic importance in sub-sahara Africa. In Ogbese town, and its environs, it constitutes a means of income and food for fisherfolks and community members. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess health status of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus using haematology and histological assessment of the fish specie due to the anthropogenic activities that takes place around the river body. A total 120 live juvenile fish samples of C. nigrodigitatus were collected around shallow habitats of Ogbese River by the assistance of fisherfolks using fish cage. Some water parameters measurements were taken: temperature, pH, DO, Turbidity and Conductivity. Morphometric measurement: Weight (g) and length (cm) of fish were taken. Haematology and histology of fish gills, liver and intestine were determined. Mean water temperature (27.70±0.18°C), pH (7.36±0.22), DO (6.98±0.15 mg/l), Turbidity (78.50±13.53 NTU) and Conductivity (148.35±27.98) of the river determined respectively. Mean body weight of fish was 148.15 ± 36.53 g, and mean length was 25.64 ± 2.86 cm. The gills, liver and intestines of the fish specie were examined to assess the architecture of the organs. Results of haematology studies of C. nigrodigitatus revealed high values in the parameters measured. Red Blood Cell was higher than the White Blood Cell with mean value of (225.63±10.45 103/mm3) while Eosinophils recorded lowest parameters with mean value of (1.75±0.52%). Results of histology of gills, liver and intestines showed that the gill filaments were eroded with deformation of the cartilage core and also hyperplasia of the secondary lamellae. The intestines showed atrophy in a mucosal layer, hemorrhage and dilation within blood vessels and within serosa of mucosa and for liver, picnotic nucleus were shattered, the hepatocytes were ruptured and there was increased kupffer cell count as a result of exposure to pollutants. The results indicated that pollution level of the environment have significant impact on health status of fish.
James O. The production and storage of dried fish. In: FAO Fisheries Report (ITALY). 1984;279.
Akande GR. Fish processing technology in Nigeria: Challenges and prospects. In: Aiyeloja AA, Ijeomah HM. (Eds.). Book of Reading in Forestry, Wildlife Management and Fisheries. Topbase Nigeria Ltd. New Oko Oba, Lagos. 2011;772-808.
Bankole NO, Yem IY, Olowosegun OM. Fish resources of Lake Kainji, Nigeria. In: Raji A, Okaeme N, Ibeun MO (Eds.). Forty Years on Lake Kainji. Fisheries Research, NIFFR, New Bussa, Nigeria. 2011;20-42.
Skouras A, Broeg K, Dizer H, Von Western Hagen H, Hansen P, Stein Hagen D. The use of innate immune responses as biomarkers in a programme of integrated biological effects monitoring on flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern north-Sea. Helgol. Marine Resources. 2003;57:190–198.
Azevedo TMP, Martins Ml, Bozzo FR, Moraes FR. Haematological and gill responses in parasitized tilapia from valley of Tijucas River, SC, Brazil. Sci Agric. 2006;63(2):115-120.
Ranzani-Paiva MJ, Godinho HM. Estudos hematológicos do curimbatá, Prochilodus scrofa Steindachner, 1881 (Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes, Prochilodontidae). Série vermelha. Bol Inst Pesca. 1985;12(2):25-35.
Ranzani-Paiva MJ, Silva-Souza AT, Pavanelli GT, Takemoto RM, Eiras AC. Haematological evaluation in commercial fish species from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Acta Science. 2000;22:507-513.
Lusková V. Factors affecting haematological indices in free-living fish populations. Acta Vet Brno. 1998;67:249-255.
Joshi PK, Bose M, Harish D. Haematological changes in the blood of Clarias batrachus exposed to mercuric chloride. Journal of Ecotoxicology and Environmental Monitoring. 2002;12:119-122.
Val AL, Schwantes AR, Almeida-Val VMF, Schwantes MLB. Hemoglobin, hematology, intraerythrocytyc phosphates and whole blood bohr effect from lotic and lentic Hypostomus regani populations (São Paulo-Brazil). Composition of Biochemical Physiology. 1985;80B(4):737-741.
Gbore FA, Oginni O, Adewole AM, Aladetan JO. The effect of transportation and handling stress on hematology and plasma biochemistry in fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. World Journalof Agricultural Sciences. 2006;2(2):208-212.
Martins Ml, Moraes FR, Fujimoto RY, Onaka EM, Bozzo FR, Moraes JRE. Carrageenin induced inflammation in Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes: Characidae) cultured in Brazil. Bol Inst Pesca. 2006;32(1):31-39.
Rey Vázquez G, Guerrero GA. Characterization of blood cells and hematological parameters in Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Perciformes). Tissue and Cell. 2007;39:151-160.
Martins Ml, Tavares-Dias M, Fujimoto RY, Onaka EM, Nomura DT. Haematological alterations of Leporinus macrocephalus (Osteichtyes: Anostomidae) naturally infected by Goezia leporini (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in fish pond. Arq Bras Medicine, Vetinary Zootechnique. 2004;56(5):640-646.
Jamalzadeh HR, Keyvan A, Ghomi MR, Gherardi F. Comparison of blood indices in healthy and fungal infected Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius). African Journal Biotechnology. 2009;8(2):319-322.
Harper HH. Fate of heavy metals from runoff in storm water management systems. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida; 1985.
Sutherland RA, Tolosa CA. Multi-element analysis of road deposited sediment in an urban drainage basin, Honolulu, Hawaii. Environmental Pollution. 2000;110:483-495.
Ogunola OS, Onada OA, Falaye AE. Ecological risk evaluation of biological and geochemical trace metals in Okrika Estuary. International Journal of Environmental Research. 2017;11(2):149–173.
Houston AH. Blood and circulation. In: Schreck CB, Moyle PB (Eds), Methods in fish biology. Am Fish Soc, Bethesda, Maryland. 1990;273-334.
Humason GL. Animal tissue techniques. Los Alamos Scientific laboratories, San Francisco, W.H. Freeman. 1962;492.
World Health Organisation. Water quality surveys: A guide for the collection and interpretation of water quality data; Studies and Reports in Hydrology N 23, UNESCO/WHO; 2001.
World Health Organisation. Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target: The urban and rural challenge of the decade. Guidelines for drinking water quality; Geneva; 2006.
Chindah AC. The effect of industrial activities on the periphyton community at theupper reaches of New Calabar River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Water Resources. 1998;32(4):1137–1143.
Ladipo MK, Ajibola VO, Oniye SJ. Seasonal variations in physicochemical properties of water in some selected locations of the Lagos Lagoon. Science World Journal. 2011;6(4):5-11.
Adebayo OT, Fagbenro OA, Ajayi CB, Popoola OM. Normal haematological profile of Parachanna obscura as a diagnostic tool. Aquaculture International Journal of Zoological Research. 2007;3(4):193–199.
Ujjania NC, Kohli MPS, Sharma LL. Length-weight relationship and condition factors of Indian major carps (C. catla, L. rohita and C. mrigala) in Mahi Bajaj Sagar, India. Research Journal of Biology. 2012;2(1):30-36.
Getso BU, Abdullahi JM, Yola IA. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus of Wudil River, Kano, Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. 2017;16(1):1-4.
Gupta S, Banerjee S. Length-weight relationship of Mystus tengara (Ham.-Buch., 1822), a freshwater catfish of Indian sub-continent. International Journal of Aquatic Biology. 2015;3(2):114-118.
Bassey EA, Ricardo PK. Seasonality in growth of Fundulopanchax gardneri (Bolenger) in Mfangmfang pond in Uyo, Nigeria. The Zoologist. 2003;2:68-75.
Thomas J, Venus S, Kurup BM. Length-weight relationship of some deep-sea fishes inhabiting the continental slope beyond 250m depth along west coast of India. Naga. ICLARM Q. 2003;26:17-21.
Olurin KB, Aderibigbe OA. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of pond reared juvenile Oreochromis niloticus. World Journal of Zoology. 2006;1(2):82-85.
Etim NN, Williams ME, Akpabio U, Offiong EE. Haematological parameters and factors affecting their values. Scientific Education Centre N Am. 2013;2:37–47.
Pamila D, Subbaiyan PA, Ramaswamy M. Toxic effect of chromium, and cobalt on Sartherodon mossambicus (peters). Indian Journal of Environmental Health. 1991;3:218-224.
Eisler R. Erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content of nine species of marine teleosts. Chesapeake Sci. 1965;6:116–120.
Satheeshkumar P, Senthilkumar D, Ananthan G, Soundarapandian P, Khan AB. Measurement of hematological and biochemical studies on wild marine carnivorous fishes from Vellar estuary, Southeast coast of India Composition of Clinical Pathology. 2011;20:127-134.
Singh M. Haematological responses in a freshwater teleost Channa punctatus to experimental copper and chromium poisoning. Journal of Environmental Biology. 1995;16:339-341.
Singh KD, Srivastava B, Sahu A. Non-conventional absorbents for fresh water treatment containing phenolic compounds. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting American Society for Reproductive Immunology, June 6-9, 2002, Chicago, IL. 2002;73-74.
Larsson A, Haux C, Sjobeck ML. Fish physiology and metal pollution: Results and experiences from laboratory and field studies. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 1985;9:250-281.
Banerjee V, Banerjee M. Effect of heavy metal poisoning on peripheral hemogram in fish fossilis (Bloch) mercury, chromium and zinc chlorides (LC50). Composition of Physiology and Ecology. 1998;13:128- 134.
Kumar S, Lata S, Gopal K. Deltamethrin induced physiological changes in freshwater cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology. 1999;62:254-258.
Sahan A, Cengizler I. Determination of some haematological parameters in spotted barb (Capoeta barroisi Lortet, 1894) and roach (Rutilus rutilus, Linnaeus, 1758) living in Seyhan river (Adana city region)]. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science. 2002;26:849-858.
Harikrishnan K, Sabu Thomas, Sanil George, Poul Murugan Satbjsh R, Sathish Mundayoor, Das MR. Pollution Research. 1999;18(3):261-269.
Nanda P. Haematological changes in the common Indian cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis under nickel stress. Journal of Ecobiology. 1997;9:243-246.
Cazenave J, Wunderlin DA, Hued AC, de los Angeles Bistoni M. Haematological parameters in a neotropical fish, Corydoras paleatus, (Jenyns, 1842) (Pisces, Callichthyidae), captured from pristine and polluted water. Hydrobiologia. 2005;537:25-33.
Fernandes MN, Mazon AF. Environmental pollution and fish gill morphology. In: Val AL, Kapoor BG (Eds.). Fish adaptations. Enfield, Science Publishers. 2003;203-231.
Simonato JD, Guedes LB, Martinez BR. Biochemical, physiological and histological changes in the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus exposed to diesel oil. Ecotoxiciology and Environmental Safety. 2008;69:112-120.
Rajeshkumar S, Karunamurthy D, Halley G, Munuswamy N. An integrated use of histological and ultra-structural biomarkers in Mugil cephalus for assessing heavy metal pollution in east Berbice- Corentyne, Guyana. International Journal of Bioassays. 2015;4(11):4541-4554.
Vasanthi LA, Revathi P, Mini J, Natesan MN. Integrated use of histological and ultra structural biomarkers in Mugil cephalus for assessing heavy metal pollution in Ennore estuary, Chennai, Chemosphere. 2013;91:1156-1164.
Lagadic L, Amiard JC, Caquet T. Biomarkers and evaluation of the ecotoxicological impact of pollutants. In: Lagadic L, Caquet T, Amiard JC, Ramade F. Use of biomarkers for environmental quality assessment. Science Publishers, Enfield (NH) USA. 2000;475.
Schmitt CJ, Dethloff GM. Biomonitoring of environmental status and trends (BEST) program: Selected methods for monitoring chemical contaminants and their effects in aquatic ecosystems. Information and Technology Report USGS/BRD-2000-0005.Columbia, (MO):U.S; 2000.
Marchand MJ, Dyk JCV, Barnhoorn IEJ, Wagenaar GM. Histopathological changes in two potential indicator fish species from a hypereutrophic Freshwater ecosystem in South Africa: A baseline study; 2012.
Olarinmoye O, Taiwo V, Clarke E, Kumolu-Johnson C, Aderinola O, Adekunbi F. Hepatic pathologies in the brackish water catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) from contaminated locations of the Lagos lagoon complex. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res. 2009;7:277–286.
Hanna MI, Shaheed IB, Elias NS. A contribution on chromium and lead toxicity in cultured Oreochromis niloticus. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology of Fish. 2005;9:177-209.
Bashir N. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of Labeo rohita and Cyprinus carpio. BS thesis, Department of Zoology, GC University, Faisalabad; 2010.
Yousafzai AM, Douglas P, Khan AR, Ahmad I, Siraj M. Comparison of heavy metals burden in two freshwater fishes, Wallago attu and Labeo dyocheilus with regard to their feeding habits in natural ecosystem. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 2010;42:537-544.
Soufy H, Soliman M, El-Manakhly E, Gaafa A. Some biochemical and pathological investigations on mono sex Tilapia following chronic exposure to carbofuran pesticides. Global Veterinary. 2007;1:45-52.