Coral Reef Zone Analysis in Development of Segmentation Ecotourism in Karimunjawa National Park

Main Article Content

Aramita Livia Ardis
Mega Laksmini Syamsudin
Herman Hamdani
Lantun Paradhita Dewanti

Abstract

Karimunjawa is one of the main destinations that present underwater beauty that is quite popular. But due to increased tourism activities provide economic benefits but also have a negative impact on coral reef ecosystems so that prudent and sustainable management is needed, these characteristics are felt capable of being helped by remote sensing technology. The purpose of this research is to analyze the coral reef zoning for the development of ecotourism segmentation and the carrying capacity of coral reef ecosystems and to map the condition of coral reef ecosystems in the Karimunjawa National Park area through remote sensing technology. The method used in data collection uses a survey method which is divided into 2 types in-situ conducted on 19th April 2019 to 2nd May 2019 and ex-situ taken for 4 years for coral cover and 1 year for sea surface temperature. By using quantitative descriptive analysis, land suitability results are obtained based on the land suitability index approach and the percentage of coral cover in determining the mapping of ecotourism segmentation areas. The results of this research show that through in-situ approach, data collection in three stations on Sintok and Menjangan Kecil Islands has good coral cover while Cemara Besar is damaged. The appropriate Tourism Conformity Index value is on Menjangan Kecil Island while the other two stations are not so that the carrying capacity calculation is only done on the appropriate and very appropriate island. Inversely proportional through the analysis of the Scenic Beauty Estimation value, Cemara Besar Island which shows a high value while on the Menjangan Kecil Island the lowest. Spatial analysis shows that the fluctuation in sea surface temperature during one year is not too significant and is still limited to the optimum temperature range for coral growth so that it does not affect the conditions causing damage to coral reefs, called bleaching. Looking at the distribution of coral reefs via satellite, over the past 4 years shows an increase in dead coral cover leaving 6,752,802 m2 in 2019.

Keywords:
Cemara Besar, island, map, Menjangan Kecil, tourism, sea, Sintok.

Article Details

How to Cite
Livia Ardis, A., Syamsudin, M. L., Hamdani, H., & Dewanti, L. P. (2019). Coral Reef Zone Analysis in Development of Segmentation Ecotourism in Karimunjawa National Park. Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, 4(4), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajfar/2019/v4i430062
Section
Original Research Article

References

Wild C, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Naumann MS, Colombo-Pallotta MF, Ateweberhan M, Fitt WK, Iglesias-Prieto R, Palmer C, Bythell JC, Ortiz JC, Loya Y, van Woesik R. Climate change impedes scleractinian corals as primary reef ecosystem engineers. Marine and Freshwater Research. 2011;62(2):205-215.

Baskara KA, Hendarto RM, Susilowati I. Economic's valuation of marine protected area (MPA) of Karimunjawa, Jepara-Indonesia. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation. 2017;10(6): 1554-1568.

Burke L, Selig E, Spalding M. Reef at risk in South East Asia; 2002.
Available:www.wri.org/reefatrisk.

Dahuri R. Keanekaragaman hayati laut, aset pembangunan berkelanjutan Indonesia. Gramedia Pustaka, Jakarta; 2003.

Hughes TP, Rodrigues MJ, Bellwood DR, Ceccarelli D, Hoegh Guldberg O, McCook L, Moltschaniwsky N, Pratchett MS, Steneck RS, Willis B. Phase shifts, herbivory, and the resilience of coral reefs to climate change. Current Biology. 2007; 17(4):360-365.

Rhama B. The implications of the values and behaviours of actors for ecotourism policy: A case study of Sebangau National Park, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Central Lancashire; 2017.

Irawan J, Sasmito B, dan A. Suprayogi. Pemetaan sebaran terumbu karang dengan metode algoritma lyzenga secara temporal menggunakan citra landsat 5 7 dan 8. Studi Kasus: Pulau Karimunjawa. Jurnal Geodesi. Undip; 2017.

English SC, Wilkinson, dan V Barker. Survey manual for tropical marine resources. Australian Institut of Marine Science. Townsville Australia; 1997.

Gomez ED, Yap HT. Monitoring reef condition in kenchington RA and hudson BET (eds) coral reef management handbook. UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Technology for South East Asia. Jakarta; 1988.

Lumbantoruan LH. Kesesuaian dan daya dukung sumberdaya terumbu karang untuk pengembangan wisata snorkeling dan diving di pulau beralas pasir desa teluk bakau. Skripsi; 2017.

Daniel C, Boster RS. Measuring landscape aesthetic: The scenic beauty estimation method. USDA. New Jersey; 1976.

Bano VS, Khakim N. Pemanfaatan citra penginderaan jauh untuk pemetaan terumbukarang di teluk tomini bagian gorontalo; 2014

Nybakken JW. Biologi laut suatu dari M. Eidman., Koesoebiono, D.G. Bengen., M. Hutomo dan S. Suharjo). P.T. Gramedia Jakarta.1992;459.

Brown BE. Coral bleaching: Causes and consequences. Coral reefs. 1997;16(1):S129-S138.

Hoegh GO. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs. Marine and Fresh Water Research. 1999;50(8):839-866.

Baird AH, Bhagooli R, Ralph PJ, Takahashi S. Coral bleaching: The role of the host. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 2009;24(1):16-20.

Putra E, Gaol JL, Siregar VP. Hubungan konsentrasi klorofil-a dan suhu permukaan laut dengan hasil tangkapan ikan pelagis utama di perairan laut jawa dari citra satelit MODIS. Jurnal Teknologi Perikanan dan Kelautan, IPB: Bogor. 2012; 3(2).

Fadika U, Rifai A, Rochaddi B. Arah dan kecepatan angin musiman serta kaitannya dengan sebaran suhu permukaan laut di selatan pangandaran jawa barat. Jurnal Oseanografi. 2014;3(3): 429 – 437.

Sulisyati R, Prihatinningsih P, dan Mulyadi. Revisi Zonasi Taman Nasional Karimunjawa Sebagai Umpama Kompromi Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam. Seminar Nasional Geomatika; 2018.