Main Article Content
This study evaluated biochemical responses of genetically male tilapia after replacing fish oil with plant-based oils in their diets. The sources of oils were coconut, olive, crude palm, sunflower and sesame seed. These oils were incorporated at 7% level and were used to formulate five isonitrogenous (42.5% CP) diets. In the control experiment (sixth diet) fish oil was used. Fish were reared in 1 m x 1 m x 1 m floating net-hapa. Feeing trial lasted for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and tested for serum protein, electrolytes and tissue lipid peroxidation. Results of the study revealed that the ratio of albumin to globulin was statistically similar (p > 0.05) in all fish group examined. The results of serum electrolyte showed that olive oil treated fish recorded the highest (p < 0.05) level. The amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) formed in fish tissues increased (p < 0.05) in sunflower oil group by 69%, 43%, 20% and 32% in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. This indicated that reactive oxygen species may be associated with the metabolism of sunflower oil leading to peroxidation of membrane lipids of the respective organs. However, this level of MDA deposition had not been associated with any negative effects on fish health. Inferences from this study conclusively support the direct use of these plant oils as total replacement for fish oil in diets of Oreochromis niloticus.
FAO. On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. 2013;583:1-68.
Ponzoni RW, Nguyen NH, Khaw HL, Kamaruzzaman N, Hamzah A, Bakar KRB, Yee HY. Genetic improvement of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) – Present and future. In: 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, World Fish Center, Malaysia. 2008;33.
Eknath AE, Bentsen HB, Ponzoni RW, Rye M, Nguyen NH, Thodesen J, Gjerde B. Genetic improvement of farmed tilapias: Composition and genetic parameters of a synthetic base population of Oreochromis niloticus for selective breeding. Aquaculture. 2007;273:1–14.
Gupta MV, Acosta BO. From drawing board to dinning table: The success story of the GIFT project. NAGA World Fish Center Quarterly. 2004;22:3–4.
Effiong MU. Effects of crude protein levels and lipid sources on growth and biochemical attributes of catfish, Clarias gariepinus and tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Ph.D Thesis, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. 2015;339.
NRC (National Research Council). Nutrient requirement of fish. Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C: National Academy Press. 1993;114.
FIN (Fishmeal Information Network). Annual review of the feed grade fish stocks used to produce fishmeal and fish oil for the UK Market. 2006;54.
Ufodike EBC, Onun U, Effiong MU. Effects of substitution of fishmeal with lizard meal in the diet of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Journal of Aquatic Sciences. 2011a;26:8–11.
Ufodike EBC, Dawen FD, Effiong MU. Growth and feed utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings fed diets containing raw, roasted and fermented soyabean. Journal of Aquatic Sciences. 2011b;26:27–31.
Ufodike EBC, Usman M, Effiong MU. Substitution of earthworm meal with a portion of fishmeal in diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Journal of Aquatic Sciences. 2012;12(1):29-33.
Otubusin SO. The effect of feedstuffs on tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fry in floating Net-Hapas. Nigeria Journal of Science. 2000;34(4):377-379.
Rudneva II, Kovyrshina TB. Comparative study of electrophoretic characteristics of serum albumin of round goby Neogobius melanostomus from Black Sea and Azov Sea. International Journal of Advanced Biological Research. 2011;1(1):131- 136.
Fossati P, Prencipe L. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clinical Chemistry. 1982;28:2077–2080.
Cheesbrough M. Medical laboratory manual for tropical countries. 2nd Ed. Butterworth, London. 1987;509-511.
Farombi EO, Ajimoko YR, Adelowo OA. Effect of butachlor on antioxidant enzyme status and lipid peroxidation in fresh water African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2008;5(5): 423-427.
Babalola TO, Adebayo MA. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth performance and feed utilization by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. Journal of Fisheries International. 2007;2(1):60-64.
Aderolu AZ, Akinyemi OA. Dietary effects of coconut oil and peanut oil in improving biochemical characteristics of Clarias gariepinus Juvenile. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2009;9: 105-110.
Sotolu OA. Feed utilization and biochemical characteristics of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings fed diets containing fish oil and vegetable oils as total replacements. World Journal of Fish and Marine Science. 2010;2(2):93-98.
Ochang SN, Fagbenro OA, Adebayo OT. Growth performance, body composition, haematology and product quality of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed diets with palm oil. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2007;6(5):452-459.
Mensink RP, Katan MB. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis. 1992;12: 911-919.
Jordal AO, Lie Ø, Torstensen BE. Complete replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oil blend affect liver lipid and plasma lipoprotein levels in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture Nutrition. 2007;13:114-130.
Richard N, Kaushik S, Larroquet L, Panserat S, Corraze G. Replacing dietary fish oil by vegetable oils has little effect on lipogenesis, lipid transport and tissue lipid uptake in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). British Journal of Nutrition. 2006;96:299–309.
Genser B, Silbernagel G, De Backer G, Bruckert E, Carmena R, Chapman MJ, Deanfield J, Descamps OS. Plant sterols and cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Heart Journal. 2012;33(4):444–451.
Marina A, Che M, Man YB, Amin I. Virgin coconut oil: Emerging functional food oil. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2009;20(10):481-487.
Sandnes K, Lie O, Waagbo R. Normal ranges of some blood parameters in adult farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, Journal of Fish Biology. 1988;32:129-136.
Baker ME. Albumin, steroid hormones and the origin of vertebrates. Journal of Endocrinology. 2002;175:121–127.
Effiong MU, Akpan AW. Evaluation of the biochemical responses of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) after replacing fish oil with plant-based oils in their diets. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2016;20(4): 1069-73.
Wei D, Wang X, Guo Y, Wang Q, Ma J. Growth performance, hematological and biochemical responses of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) reared at different stocking densities. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2011;6(28):6177–6182.
Adedeji OB. Acute effect of diazinon on blood plasma biochemistry in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Journal of Clinical Medicine and Research. 2010;2(1): 001-006.
Gutteridge JMC, Wilkins C. Copper dependent hydroxyl radical damage to ascorbic acid: Formation of a thiobarbituric acid reactive products. FEBS Letter. 1982;137:327-340.
Devaki T, Raghavendran HRB, Sathivel A. Hepatoprotective nature of seaweed alcoholic extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Journal of Health Science. 2004;50:42-46.
Shen HM, Liu ZG. Signalling pathway is a key modulator in cell death mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Free Radical Biological Medicine. 2006;40:928-939.