Retracted: A Review on Hidden Subterranean (Hypogean) Ichthyofaunal Resources of India along with IUCN Status, Threats and Its Conservation Strategies

Ashish Sahu *

Faculty of Fisheries, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad, Cochin, Kerala, India and ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, PO. Dilkusha Telibagh, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Mahender Singh

ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, PO. Dilkusha Telibagh, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Ravindra Kumar

ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, PO. Dilkusha Telibagh, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Uttam Kumar Sarkar

ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, PO. Dilkusha Telibagh, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Subterranean habitats are one of the most peculiar and mysterious ecosystems on earth, yet we still have very less information about their biodiversity. These animals often live in extremely nutrient-limited environments. Consequently, most of the subterranean fish species are relatively small in size to survive on limited food resources. We present here a systematic checklist along with IUCN conservation status and a comprehensive account of the diversity, distribution, threats and suggest conservation measures for the Indian subterranean fishes. A total of 18 species under 5 orders, 8 families and 7 genera are listed from the secondary data. According to the IUCN Red List status, nine subterranean fish fauna are listed under the Not Evaluated (50%) category, five Data Deficient (27.78%), two endangered (11.11%), and only one species come under the Critically Endangered (5.56%) and Least Concern category (5.56%). Several anthropogenic stressors including agriculture, overexploitation, deforestation, habitat disturbance, hydroelectrically plans, invasive species, human-fish conflicts, climate change, sand mining and un-ecofriendly tourism are threatening these underground fishes. Nevertheless, there have been only a few studies on subterranean fish fauna, partly because many subterranean occur in tropical regions, sometimes in caves of difficult access, where there are few local researchers. It is necessary to promote throughout society the importance and urgency of studying and conserving subterranean resources to preserve their ecosystem services.

 

Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 21th January-2023. Related policy is available here: https://bit.ly/ajfar-retraction


How to Cite

Sahu, A., Singh, M., Kumar, R., & Sarkar, U. K. (2022). Retracted: A Review on Hidden Subterranean (Hypogean) Ichthyofaunal Resources of India along with IUCN Status, Threats and Its Conservation Strategies. Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, 20(6), 29–39. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajfar/2022/v20i6512

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