Behavioural and Haematological Alterations in the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Exposed to Varying Concentrations of Glyphosate

Ifeoma C. Edeh *

Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Charity I. Nsofor

Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Stanley C. Iheanacho

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ikwo, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Chukwumaije C. Ikechukwu

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Ijem A. Nnachi

Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Chidimma G. Nwankwo

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ikwo, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Extensive use of herbicides poses a serious threat to aquatic life due to runoff from treated fields. A static bioassay method was used to evaluate the toxicity of acute exposure to glyphosate on Clarias gariepinus behaviour and haematological parameters. Glyphosate was tested at varying concentrations (0.72, 1.44, 2.16, and 2.88 mg/l (control), 0.72, 1.44, 2.16, and 2.88 mg/l) for 96 hours in the laboratory. Significant (P < .05) dose-dependent behavioural and morphological changes of respiratory disturbance, erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, mucous secretion, and mortality were recorded in the surviving fish. Erythrocyte (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and leukocyte (WBC) values decreased significantly (P < .05) in treated fish as compared with controls. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were not significantly different (P >.05) between the treated and control fish. Insignificant dose-dependent changes in the counts of neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils were also induced by glyphosate. The variations seen in this study demonstrated that glyphosate had a detrimental effect on the health of the fish. Educating farmers on recommended modes for the administration of glyphosate-herbicides on farmlands should be implemented and enhanced.

Keywords: Glyphosate, acute toxicity, Clarias gariepinus, behaviour, haematology


How to Cite

Edeh, I. C., Nsofor, C. I., Iheanacho, S. C., Ikechukwu, C. C., Nnachi, I. A., & Nwankwo, C. G. (2023). Behavioural and Haematological Alterations in the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Exposed to Varying Concentrations of Glyphosate. Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, 21(1), 32–42. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajfar/2023/v21i1527

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

EPA. The United States Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. Glyphosate-Response to Comments Usage and Benefits. 2019;20460.

Accessed 13 September 2022.

Available:https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2019-04/documents/glyphosate-response- comments-usage-benefits-final.pdf

Peillex C, Pelletier M. The impact and toxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on health and immunity. J Immunotoxicol. 2020;17(1):163-174.

Caloni F, Cortinovis C, Rivolta M, Davanzo F. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides. Sci Total Environ. 2016;539:331-336.

Gillezeau C, Van GM, Shaffer R, Rana I, Zhang L, Sheppard L, Taioli E. The evidence of human exposure to glyphosate: A review. J. Environ Health. 2019;18(1): 2-5.

Ayanda, OI, Oniyeb SJ, Auta JA, Ajibola VO. Acute toxicity of glyphosate and paraquat to the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Teugels 1986) using some biochemical indicators. Trop. Zool. 2015;28(4):52-162.

Pérez GL, Vera MS, Miranda L. Effects of Herbicide Glyphosate and Glyphosate-Based Formulations on Aquatic Ecosystems, Herbicides and Environment, Andreas Kortekamp (ed.); 2011.

ISBN:978-953-307-476-4.

InTech. (Accessed October 2022).

Benbrook CM. Trends in glyphosate herbicide use in the United States and globally. Environ Sci Eur. 2016; 28: 3.

Chekan JR, Cogan DP, Nair SK. Molecular basis for resistance against phosphonate antibiotics and herbicides. Medicinal Chemistry Communication. 2016;7:28-36.

Masiol M, Giannì B, Prete M. Herbicides in river water across the northeastern Italy: Occurrence and spatial patterns of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid, and glufosinate-ammonium. Environ Sci and Pollut Res. 2018;25:24368-24378.

Burchfield S, Bailey D, Todt C, Denney R, Negga R, Fitsanakis V. Acute exposure to a glyphosate-containing herbicide formulation inhibits Complex II and increases hydrogen peroxide in model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ Toxico and Pharm. 2019;66:36-42.

Mendes KF, Justiniano AP, Takeshita RV, Tornisielo VL. water resource pollution by herbicide residues, biochemical toxicology - heavy metals and nanomaterials, muharrem ince, olcay kaplan ince and gabrijel ondrasek. Intech Open; 2019.

DOI:10.5772/intechopen.85159.

Osioma EI, Ejoh AS. Activities of acetylcholinesterase, oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in clarias gariepinus exposed to ‘uproot’, a glyphosate–based herbicide. Int J Zool Investig. 2021;7:2454-3055.

Iheanacho SC, Odo GE. Neurotoxicity, oxidative stress biomarkers and haematological responses in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to polyvinyl chloride microparticles. Comp Biochem Physiol. 2020;232:108741.

Costa MB, Tavares FV, Martinez CB, Colares IG, Martinez GMC. Accumulation and effects of copper on aquatic macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus L.: Potential application to environmental monitoring and phytoremediation. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;155:117-124.

Edeh IC, Nsofor CI, Ikeogu CF, Amobi MI, Ikechukwu CC, Ogbonnaya HF, Avwernoya F. Comparative study on the growth and survival of heteroclarias fry fed on Artemia nauplii and Moina micrura. The Bioscientist Journal. 2021;9(1):1-8.

Sani A, Idris MK. Acute toxicity of herbicide (glyphosate) in Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Toxicol Rep. 2016;3:513-515.

Amaeze NH, Komolafe BO, Femi MA. Comparative assessment of the acute toxicity, haematological and genotoxic effects of ten commonly used pesticides on the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Heliyon. 2020;6(8):2405-8440.

Sprague, J.B. Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish: in: bioassay methods for acute toxicity. Water Resources. 1977;3:793-821.

APHA (American Public Health Association. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 19th ed. Washington, D.C. 1995;1:100.

Reish DJ, Oshida RS. Manual of methods in aquatic environment research. Part 10. Short-term static bioassay. FAO Fish Technical Paper. 1987:247:62.

Finney DJ. Probit analysis. (pp 123–125). London, UK: Cambridge University Press.1971.

Drummond RA, Russom CL, Gieger DL, DeFoe DL. Behavioural and morphological changes in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) as diagnostic endpoints for screening chemicals according to mode of action. In: T.M. Poston and R. Prudy (eds) Aquatic toxicology and environmental fate: Ninth Volume. STP 921. American Society for Testing and Material, Philadelphia, PA. 1986;415-435.

Blaxhall PC, Daisley, KW. Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood. J Fish Biol. 1973;5:771-781.

Hesser EF. Method for routine fish haematology prog. Progressive Culturist, 1960;22:164-171.

Briggs C, Bain, BJ. Basic haematological technique. In: Bain, B.J, Bates, I, Laffan, W, Lewis, S.W. (Eds.), Dacie and Lewis Practical Haematology, 11th ed. Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone; 2011.

Houston AH. Blood and circulation. In: Schreck, C.B, Moyle, P.B. (Eds.), Methods in Fish Biology. Bethesda, Meryland, American Fisheries Society. 1990;273–335.

Hibiya T. An atlas of fish histology: normal and pathological features. Tokyo Kodansha; 1982.

Chinabut S, Limsuwan C, Kitswat P. Histology of walking catfish, Clarias batrachus. Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute, Thailand. 1991;96.

Dacie JV, Lewis SM. Practical Haematology, 11th ed. Churchill Livingstone, New York; 2011.

Thanomsit C, Wattanakornsiri A, Nanthanawat P. Effect of glyphosate on fish behaviour and histological alteration of gills in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Burapha Sci J. 2016;21:204-215.

Deivasigamani S. Effects of herbicides on fish and histological evaluation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Int J Appl Res. 2015;1(7):437-440.

Nwani CD, Ibiam UA, Ibiam OU, Nworie O, Onyishi G Atama C. Investigation on acute toxicity and behavioural changes in Tilapia zilli due to glyphosate-based herbicide, forceup. J Anim and Plant Sci. 2013;23(3):888-892.

Faria M, Bedrossiantz J, Ricardo J, Ramírez R, Mayol M, Garcíab GH, et al. Glyphosate targets fish monoaminergic systems leading to oxidative stress and anxiety. Environment international. 2021;146:106-253.

Ajima MNO, Pandey PK, Kumar K, Poojary N. Neurotoxic effects, molecular responses, and oxidative stress biomarkers in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linneaus, 1758), exposed to verapamil. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 2017;196:44-52.

Ayanda OI, Oniyeb SJ, Auta JA, Ajibola VO. Behavioural and some physiological assessment of glyphosate and paraquat toxicity of juveniles of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Pak J Zool. 2017;49(1):183-190.

Lanzarin GAB, Venancio CAS, Monteiro, SM, Felix LM. Behavioural toxicity of relevant concentrations of glyphosate commercial formulation-Roundup UltraMax-During Zebrafish embryogenesis. Chemosphere. 2020;253:126636-126636.

Odo GE, Agwu E, Ivoke, N, Ejere VC, Atama CI, Ezea CO, Aguoru GC. et al. Effect of short-term exposure to cyperdicot on behavioural and haematological responses in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Turkish J Fish Aquat Sci. 2015;17:61-70.

Ogueji E, Nwani C, Mbah C, Iheanacho S, Nweke F. Oxidative stress, biochemical, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant responses in Clarias gariepinus exposed to acute concentrations of ivermectin. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2020; 27(14):16806-16815.

Matozzo V, Fabrello J, Marin MG. The Effects of glyphosate and its commercial formulations to marine invertebrates: A Review. J Mar Sci Eng. 2020;8:399.

Ogueji EO, Nwani CD, Iheanacho SC, Mbah CE, Okeke OC. Ibrahim BU. Toxicity of diazepam on lipid peroxidation, biochemical and oxidative stress indicators on liver and gill tissues of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Int J Fish Aquacul Stu. 2017;5(3): 114-123.

Topal A, Atamanalp M, Ucar A, Oruc E, Kocaman EM. et al. Effects of glyphosate on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Transcriptional and enzymatic analyses of anti-oxidant defense system, histopathological liver damage and swimming performance. Ecotoxico Environ Saf. 2015;111:206-214.

Abalaka SE, Oyelowo FO, Akande, M.G. et al. Toxicopathological effects of acute cadmium chloride exposure of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Toxicol Environ Health Sci. 2022;14:25–32.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13530-021-00113-6

Maurya PK, Malik DS, Yadav KK, Gupta, N, Kumar S. Haematological and histological changes in fish Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to pesticides from industrial waste water. Hum Ecol Risk Assess; 2019.

ISSN:1080-7039

Narra MR. Haematological and immune upshots in Clarias batrachus exposed to dimethoate and defying response of dietary ascorbic acid. Chemosphere. 2011;168:988-995.