Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR <p><strong>Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research (ISSN: 2582-3760)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) on all areas of aquatic research. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research en-US Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research 2582-3760 Evaluation of the Digestibility of Diets Containing Soy Okara in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fries Raised in a Controlled Environment in Benin https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR/article/view/761 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To evaluate the digestibility of diets containing soy okara in <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> fries.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Random complete block design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Laboratory of Hydrology and Wetland Research, Faculty of Sciences and technics, University of Abomey-calavi, between June 2019 and July 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Four diets containing different levels of soy okara (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) respectively noted T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> were tested. Twelve 40L tanks were randomly distributed into 04 batches with 03 repetitions for each of the 04 diets. The fries with an initial average weight of 10.47 <em>+/- </em>2g were fed <em>ad libitum</em> three times a day (8 A.M., 12 P.M., 4 P.M.) for 30 days. Survival rate, cannibalism rate, average daily gain, specific growth rate, weight-length relationship, condition factor, consumption index, ingested protein, protein efficiency coefficient and digestive utilization coefficients were measured.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The specific growth rates (SGR) ranged between 2.25 <em>+/- </em>0.165 and 2.58 <em>+/- </em>0.115 with the best rate for the treatment containing 0% soy okara. The consumption index varied from 1.18 <em>+/- </em>0.009 to 1.41 <em>+/- </em>0.132 with the best index for the T<sub>3</sub> treatment. Furthermore, the mortality rates were 0% for treatments containing 20% and 30% soy okara. The results indicate that it is possible to incorporate up to 30% soybean okara into the diet of <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> fry without hindering their zootechnical performance. The digestive protein utilization coefficients of the diets were calculated and are 95.12; 88.47; 92.21 and 90.37 for diets containing 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% soy okara respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results demonstrate that among the different diets tested, treatment T<sub>2</sub>, containing 20% soy okara, proved to be the most favorable in terms of zootechnical performance. These results suggest that T<sub>2</sub> treatment can be considered as a promising option for feeding <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> fries.</p> Constant Bienvenu Segnon Arnauld Sedjro Martin Djissou Diane Nathalie Sènami Kpogue Gangbazo André Boya Aboh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 26 5 1 9 10.9734/ajfar/2024/v26i5761 Analysis of Fish Cultivation Productivity in the Bandung City through Buruan Sae Program https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR/article/view/762 <p>This research aims to analyze the production and productivity of fish cultivation in the Buruan Sae Program in Bandung City. Apart from the socio-economic characteristics of program implementers, there are several conditions and obstacles experienced by program implementers as complementary research data. The research method used is the case study method. This research was conducted in three groups of the Buruan Sae Program. The implementation will be carried out in October 2023 – March 2024. The respondents in this research were 46 people who were program implementers from three groups of the Buruan Sae Program. This research applies a saturated sampling method or census. The analytical method in this research uses quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that the Warnasari Mandiri Group produced 210 kg of fish, while the Jasmine Integrated Farm Group and the Belpas 15 Group produced 10 kg and 15 kg of fish respectively. Warnasari Mandiri Group with fish cultivation productivity per container of 0.2 kg/year/liter. Meanwhile, the Jasmine Integrated Farm and Belpas 15 groups fish cultivation productivity per container is 0.05 and 0.07 kg/year/liter. The R/C Ratio for the Warnasari Mandiri Group is 1.14, Jasmine Integrated Farm is 2.33, and Belpas 15 is 1.25. Based on the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that the fish production of the Warnasari Mandiri Group, the Jasmine Integrated Farm Group, and the Belpas 15 Group is in the medium category. The Warnasari Mandiri group has the highest fish cultivation productivity per container, while the Jasmine Integrated Farm and Belpas 15 groups have lower fish cultivation productivity. Overall, the R/C Ratio of the three groups shows favorable results, namely greater than 1.</p> Asep Agus Handaka Suryana Mochamad Zidane Fahrul Irfy Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 26 5 10 18 10.9734/ajfar/2024/v26i5762 Assessing Diet & Trophic Position of Fish in Chenderoh Reservoir, Malaysia: SCA & SIA Approach https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR/article/view/763 <p>The present study assessed and compared the diet and trophic positions (TP) of two carnivorous fish <em>H. macrolepidota</em> and <em>C. ocellaris</em> from Chenderoh Reservoir, Malaysia. The focal goal of the study was to understand the effects of invasive non-indigenous species (NIS), <em>C. ocellaris,</em> on the native indigenous (IS) fish species, <em>H. macrolepidota</em>. Data were acquired from September 2014 to February 2015 within the study area. The assessment was grounded in stomach content analysis (SCA) and stable isotope analysis (SIA), which collectively clarified the feeding habits and trophic positions (TP) of these selected fish. In total, 184 fish samples (comprising 64 individuals of <em>H. macrolepidota</em> and 120 individuals of <em>C. ocellaris</em>) underwent stomach content analysis (SCA). Additionally, 24 individuals (12 of <em>H. macrolepidota</em> and 12 of <em>C. ocellaris</em>), sampled from December 2014 to February 2015, were selected for stable isotope analysis (SIA). The mean RGL values for <em>H. macrolepidota</em> and <em>C ocellaris</em> were 0.98 ± 0.18 and 1.10 ± 0.15 (Mean ± SD), respectively, aligning with known ranges for carnivorous fish. These values also clarified that both species occupy higher TP in the food web as tertiary or quaternary consumers. SCA findings also revealed that fish and crustaceans were the predominant food categories for <em>H. macrolepidota</em>, while <em>C. ocellaris</em> predominantly fed on fish. The mean stomach fullness index (MSF) and the gastrosomatic index (GSI) corroborated the differences in the foraging performance of the fishes, with <em>C. ocellaris</em> having a higher MSF (2.03) compared to <em>H. macrolepidota</em> (0.65). These implied that <em>C. ocellaris</em> had plentiful of food and encountered fewer diet-related challenges in the ecosystem. From SIA, δ<sup>13</sup>C values indicated that the primary carbon sources for both species are C3 plants, particularly aquatic vegetation. Further, δ<sup>15</sup>N values further ensured that both <em>H. macrolepidota</em> and <em>C. ocellaris</em> are carnivorous in nature and occupy higher TP in the ecosystem.</p> Muneera Sultana Amirul Aizal Abdul Aziz Nurul Fazlinda Mohd Fadzil Farah Mastura Rosli Yap Soon Koon Widad Fadhlullah Zarul Hazrin Bin Hashim Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 26 5 19 31 10.9734/ajfar/2024/v26i5763 Efficiency of Four Reproductive Hormones in the Artificial Propagation of Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829) https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR/article/view/765 <p>The efficiency of four different hormonal preparations (<em>Heterotis niloticus</em> pituitary extract, ovaprim, <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> pituitary extract and carp pituitary extract) on latency period, fecundity, fertilization, hatching, and larval survival in artificial propagation of <em>Heterotis niloticus</em> was investigated. Total of twelve females and twelve males earthen pond raised, 24months old broods were used. The females were divided into four groups. Each group was induced to spawn with the same hormone. Sperm from one male was used to fertilize eggs stripped from individual females. The broods were injected with four different hormonal preparations; Treatment 1,<em> Heterotis niloticus</em> pituitary extract (HnPE); Treatment 2, ovaprim (Ova); Treatment 3, <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> pituitary extract (CgPE) and Treatment 4, CPE: all replicated thrice in a completely randomized design. The results of the experiment were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and all of them received equal treatment. Latency period was significant (p&lt;0.05) among the treatments, as the period lasted for 10hrs, 9hrs, 12hrs and 11hrs for Trt1, Trt2, Trt3 and Trt4 respectively at a temperature of 28<sup>o</sup>C. Percentage egg fertilization among treatments was significant (p&lt;0.05) with the highest value of 89.66% and 89.33% recorded with HnPE and Ovaprim respectively, and lowest result of 67.33% recorded with CgPE. Percentage egg hatchability among treatments was significant (p&lt;0.05) with the highest value of 84.16% and 80.66% recorded with Ovaprim and HnPE respectively, while the lowest result of 57.33% and 59.50% was recorded with CgPE and CPE respectively. Percentage larval survival among treatments was significant (p&lt;0.05) the survival was highest with eggs hatched with Ovaprim (68.66%) closely followed with CPE (66.66%) and HnPE (63.16%) while the lowest result of 47.33% and 49.50% was recorded with CgPE and HnPE respectively. The results obtained, indicates the possibility of achieving the effectiveness of controlled reproduction in <em>Heterotis niloticus</em> studied, by applying the appropriate type of hormonal stimulation. At the end of this research, there were disparities in the efficiency of the four hormonal preparations and it was evident though one (ovaprim) gave the highest reproductive indices in fecundity, fertilization, hatchability and larval survival as it can be easily accessible though expensive in affirmation with the work of Asangusung and Uka [1] than other one’s but on the average, ovaprim, <em>Heterotis niloticus</em> pituitary extract and CPE could successfully be depended upon for commercial propagation of <em>Heterotis niloticus</em>.</p> Asangusung, P. S. Nlewadim, A. A. Uka, A. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-16 2024-05-16 26 5 53 60 10.9734/ajfar/2024/v26i5765 Fish Biodiversity and Suggested Conservation Measures of Transboundary River Someshwari in Netrokona, Bangladesh https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR/article/view/766 <p>Considering the importance of fish biodiversity for sustainable management of river fisheries, this study aims to explore and evaluate the fish biodiversity of Someshwari River along with conservation measures from November 2020 to October 2021. Data collection was carried out in Jaria, Susang Durgapur, Shivganj Bazar and Bijoypur of Netrokona district. Questionnaire interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Direct observations, Key Informant Interview (KII) was used to collect data. During the study period, 23 species under 12 families were determined. Among them 6 finfish species are endangered, 4 are critically endangered, 5 are vulnerable, 7 are data deficient, and 2 are not threatened, respectively which includes highest catch catfishes at about 26.62%. However, the lowest amount catch constituted the Miror carp of about 5.29%. After the catfish, the second highest catch was 15.9% of small prawn. Another dominant group major carps contained 11.26%, and barbs remained at 11% of the catch and the loaches constituted 1.3% of the total catch. In addition, other groups like Mola carplet 7%, gourami 2.20%, Spiny eels 9.86% etc. were found in the Someshwari river. There were about 81% fish for food and 17% ornamental fish. Fourteen distinct types of fishing equipment were used namely: nets, traps, hooks, and lines, and wounding equipment. Finally, indiscriminate use of harmful gear, extraction of sand and rock, inadequate supervision of Governments and Non Governemental orgazizations, pollution from the adjacent areas, high interest rate of bank loan were understood as common constraints in the study area. Therefore, recommendations were made to improve river fisheries management through habitat restoration, increasing public awareness, prohibition on exploiting brood fish and active participation for sustainable catch.</p> Md. Shahin Alam Nadim Haidar Maliha Khanom Mst. Kaniz Fatema Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 26 5 61 70 10.9734/ajfar/2024/v26i5766 Assessment of Women’s Participation in Fish Processing in Ekiti State, Nigeria https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR/article/view/767 <p>This research examined the involvement of women in various stages of fish processing in Ekiti State, Nigeria. A sampling method was used to select 90 women fish processors, and data was collected through structured interviews. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, such as frequencies, percentages, and means, along with charts. Additionally, probit regression analysis was conducted to identify socio-economic factors influencing women's participation in fish processing. The findings revealed that, on average, women involved in fish processing were 38.5 years old, with 57% being married and 28.4% being single. A majority (61.7%) had received formal education, and nearly all (91%) were members of cooperative societies. The study found that women were primarily engaged in scaling, gutting, and sticking (87%), with 60% using the hot smoking method. Most processing equipment was locally fabricated, with 15% using drum ovens, 25% using metal sheets, 45% using clay ovens, and 40% using kilns. The majority (85%) used firewood as a fuel source, and 89% packaged their fish in baskets and paper. The probit regression analysis indicated that age, education, access to credit, and access to markets were positively and significantly related to women's participation in fish processing. Marital status and experience in fish processing were also positively related but not significantly. The study concluded that women utilized various methods, equipment, and energy sources in fish processing. Based on the findings, recommendations were made, including assisting women in forming cooperative societies to enhance their business management skills, prioritizing women in accessing credit and loans, and stabilizing fish product prices to mitigate business risks among women processors.</p> Adekunmi A. O Kolawole, A. O Owoeye R. S Atere, B. O. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 26 5 71 81 10.9734/ajfar/2024/v26i5767 The Significance of Processing Techniques on the Quality of Smoked African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) Using Different Energy Sources https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR/article/view/768 <p>There is unavoidable need for fish smoking as a preservative technique to reduce rampant post harvest losses in the tropical Africa. However the imperative of healthier and quality smoked products through improved processing method were however investigated. Organoleptic and chemical assessment of African catfish collected from a reputable fish farm in Ogbomoso, Oyo state Nigeria was carried out. Eviscerated and non-eviserated fish samples were smoked using four different smoke sources: Gmelina (<em>Gmnelina arborea)</em>, Parkia (<em>Parkia biglobosa)</em>, Neem (<em>Azadirachita indica)</em> and charcoal. Overall acceptability was based on 5-point Hedonic scale (excellent (5) - poor (1). Chemical test was on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contents (benzo(a)pyrene, Fluoranthene,&nbsp;Napthalene,&nbsp;Acenapthalene, Chrysene&nbsp;and&nbsp;Benzo(ghi) perylene). Data were subjected to one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using general linear mode (GLM) of Factorial Experimental Design and means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range tests (P&lt;0.05). Non- eviscerated smoked African catfish samples had lower scores for colour than eviscerated smoked samples for energy sources used. Eviscerated samples had mean scores of 4.64, 3.91, 3.36 and 2.82 for charcoal, Gmelina, Neem and Parkia smoked samples respectively, much better than scores of 4.36, 2.46, 2.36 and 2.27 obtained for non-eviscerated samples. Total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were highest in samples produced using Gmelina as smoke source and Neem for eviscerated (15.25 µg/kg) and non-eviscerated (29.43 µg/kg) samples respectively. Evisceration of fish prior to smoking enhances its sensory characteristics however; concentrations of PAHs for both eviscerated and non-eviscerated fish samples were within the recommended international standard limit.</p> Olaniyi Christianah Oludayo Fawole Olaolu Olalekan Awogbade Adeniyi Adediran Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 26 5 82 89 10.9734/ajfar/2024/v26i5768 Otolith Shape Indices of Japanese Threadfin Bream (Nemipterus japonicus, Bloch 1791) from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR/article/view/769 <p>Japanese threadfin bream (<em>Nemipterus japonicus</em>) is a demersal fish that plays a very important role in maintaining ecosystem stability related to webs and food chains. This fish often becomes prey for predatory fish. In efforts to reveal the relationship between predators and prey in food webs and food chains, there is still limited information due to the difficulty of identifying digested food. In connection with this, this study aims to identify the morphology shape index value otolith of Japanese threadfin bream. Sampling was carried out at the Labuang Maros Fish Landing Site with 150 samples and morphometric data were collected from 150 pairs of otoliths in April and May 2023. The calculation of the shape index uses six descriptors, which include form factor (FF), roundness (RO), circularity or compactness (C), rectangularity (Rt), ellipticity (E), and aspect ratio (AR). The results showed that there was no significant difference in the otolith morphometry of the right and left otoliths (P&gt;0.05). Based on the shape index value obtained, it explains that the morphometric shape of the otolith of Japanese threadfin bream tends to be oval, elongated, and has an irregular surface.</p> Sri Nur Annisa Wayan Kantun Arnold Kabangnga Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 26 5 90 96 10.9734/ajfar/2024/v26i5769 Assessing Colouration in Ichthyology: Insights from the Melanophore Index Perspective https://journalajfar.com/index.php/AJFAR/article/view/764 <p>Fish colouration significantly influences various aspects of their biology, including communication, camouflage, and mate selection. Among the pigment cells responsible for generating colours, melanophores are particularly significant due to their ability to produce dark pigments called melanin. The Melanophore Index (MI) quantitatively evaluates melanophore density and distribution across different fish species. This comprehensive review delves into the significance of fish colouration, the biology of melanophores, methods for assessing MI, factors influencing MI variations, and the ecological and evolutionary implications of MI in fish populations. By synthesizing current research and highlighting gaps in knowledge, this review aims to provide a foundational understanding of assessing fish colouration through the lens of the Melanophore Index.</p> P. Nivethitha L. Arul Pragasan Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-11 2024-05-11 26 5 32 52 10.9734/ajfar/2024/v26i5764