Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Health Risk Index (HRI) in Human Consumption of Whole Fish and Water from Some Selected Dams in Katsina State Nigeria

A. I. Yaradua, A. J. Alhassan, A. U. Kurfi, A. Nasir, A. Idi, I. U. Muhammad, A. M. Kanadi

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v1i1241

This study was conducted in the year 2016 to determine the heavy metal concentrations in whole fish (Clarias gariepinus) samples and water obtained from some selected Dams (Ajiwa, Zobe and Dannakola) in Katsina state Nigeria. The objectives were mainly to detect the presence of heavy metals in whole fish and water from some selected Dams in the study area, compare the concentration of heavy metals in samples from the selected Dams concerning the permissible limits specified by WHO/FAO and USEPA Standards. Eight (8) water samples were collected at 8 random points within approximately 1000 meters on each extremity and median parts of the selected dams. Fish (Clarias gariepinus) was sampled using standard methods (AOAC, 1990). The fish and water samples were collected from Ajiwa, Zobe and Dannakola Dams of Katsina state Nigeria. Nine adult fish samples, three each from Ajiwa Dam, and Dannakola were procured from fishermen. Analysis of the concentration of these heavy metals; Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn was conducted by the use of AAS (by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) method. The results showed wide mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the selected dams water; iron recorded the highest level (range 0.4596 μg / g - 2.9510 μg / g) and lead (range 0.0031 μg / g -0.0323 μg / g) recorded the lowest level, for the fish samples the mean concentrations of the same heavy metals showed iron recording the highest level (range 1.8847 μg / g -10.0474 μg / g) and cadmium (0.0130 μg / g -0.0138 μg / g) recording the lowest level. Results from this study indicate that with the exception of the heavy metals Cd, Fe and Pb (from Zobe dam sample) values of  Mn, Pb (Ajiwa and Dannakola dams samples) and Zn in the water samples were generally lower than the USEPA, WHO/FAO maximum permissive limits while Ni was below the detection level (BDL) in all the samples. the results of this study showed that apart from Mn (PI range = 0.02-0.09), Zn (PI range = 0.01-0.03) and Pb for sampled water from Dannakola dam (PI= 0.77) which have no effect on the water quality, all the other heavy metals have pollution indices which suggest slightly, to moderate and strong effect on the selected dams water quality consideration for human and aquatic health. The metal indices also showed that all the heavy metals are at the threshold level (MI > 1) except for the heavy metals Mn and Zn in sampled waters from all the selected dams, Pb for water samples from Ajiwa and Dannakola dams and Cr for Zobe dam water sample. With the exception of the heavy metals Pb, Ni and Cr that were BDL in the fish samples the levels of the heavy metals all fall below the USEPA, WHO/FAO permissible limit for fish. The results from the present study suggests that the selected dams water quality is threatened by heavy metals pollution and may have adverse implication for drinking and aquatic health, in the fish samples the concentration levels of the heavy metals all fall below the USEPA, WHO/FAO permissible limit for fish.  However, the fish’s bio-accumulation factors of the metals suggest that they have high potentials to bio-accumulate some of the heavy metals to high levels and this may have adverse implication for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fish Community Assemblages of Mining-Impacted Freshwaters at Prestea, Ghana

Osei O. Antobre, Nat Owusu-Prempeh, Michael J. Twumasi-Ankrah

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v1i1249

The study evaluated the fish community assemblage in the sections of the Subri river, the Ankobra river, and the “galamsey” pond within the Prestea community as impacted by alluvial mining activities. Gill nets of length 10 m and mesh size 1.27 cm were used to trap fish of average length 25.25 cm whilst cane baskets were used to trap fish of average width 10.40 cm using the catch and recapture method. All the 46 fish samples identified belong to 10 genera and 5 families. The Chichlidae was the dominant family, accounting for 60% of the total families observed. With an H’ index of 1.57 the Subri river had the most fish diversity in comparison with the Ankobra river and the “galamsey” pond, which had 1.21 and 0.71, respectively. Similarly, the Subri river had a more complex fish community structure than the Ankobra and “galamsey” pond. The dominant species, Oreochromis niloticus, has not yet been evaluated by the IUCN, but the least dominated Brienomyrus brachyistus could be regarded as “least concern”. Notwithstanding, these fish are essential for food by the local communities. There is a possibility that the alluvial mining might have influenced the complexities of fish species communities. Thus conservation efforts must be promoted to sustain fish communities and overall freshwater ecosystem health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Presence and Composition of Planktons’ Organisms in Ships Ballast Water Discharged in Al-Mukalla Harbor, Gulf of Aden

Moteah Sheikh Aideed, Najla O. Al Habshi, Naeem A. K. Alamoudi

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v1i1254

This was the first study in Yemen, and Gulf of Aden aims to investigate the marine organisms in ballast water and sediments, and gives baseline information defines the zooplankton, phytoplankton and invertebrates, associated fuel tankers. Samples from Ballast water were taken from three ships that arrived at Mukalla Port, the Hadhramout coast from ports of Hamriyah port, U.A.E; ports of Taheri, Iran; and Bosaso Somalia (MT: Gulf Petroleum III, MT: Prime Royal, and M T: Breu) respectively. The marine organisms in samples were presented by three taxonomic groups, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos. Fifty-eight taxa were identified within this study; which consisted of 17 phytoplankton, 18 zooplanktons and 23 Benthos. The highest density of phytoplankton was 21 Ind/L, with the occurrence of 17 species found in ballast water, while 22 Ind/50cc of 2 species in sediment samples of the tanker Beru, and fewer densities were in Gulf Petroleum and Prim Royal. The most common phytoplankton observed were Coscinodiscus granii, Coscinodiscus jonesianus and Thalassiosira eccentric. The low Zooplankton density was 13 Ind/L with an occurrence of 18 species found in Prim Royal tanker. Copepods were the most dominant zooplankton among the three tankers. Paracalanus parvus had the highest value of dominance followed by Calanopia parathompsoni, Acrocalanus gracilis and Paracalanus denudatus had the lowest occurrence over three tankers. Seven taxa of Dinoflagellates were identified; two of them Ceratium fusus and polykrikos sp. are known to be harmful species.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Sensitivity of Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Fish Labeo, Catla and Channa Worked with to Alangium salvifolum

Mohammad Nadeem Khan

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v1i1259

The study was conducted to investigate the mixture of Alangium salvifolium extracts with distinguished organic solvents which were generally used to screen for antibacterial activity against Macrococcus brunensis, Bordetella hinzii, Morganella morganii, Salmonella bongori, Klebsiella oxytoca, Alcaligens faecalis, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Comamonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida that obtained from seven fish pathogens. Three pathogens were elucidated in the study which is conducted by using SDS-PAGE to its localisation. The extracted solvents (Acetone) gave good and enhanced antimicrobial activity in their way. The present investigation is an essential step for developing plant-based drugs which are eco-friendly for the management of the pathogenic bacteria of a fish pathogen. Development of commercial formulation of botanicals used to enhance the probability of managing such pathogenic bacteria. Further investigations are necessary for developing commercial formulations based on fields, animal trails, and toxicological experiments. This research may be footprint towards managing the newer antimicrobial entities against the fish pathogen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Unexpected Covariances between Shell Growth Parameters are Controlling the Range of Interspecific Variations of Shell shape in the Deep-Sea Clams Genus Calyptogena (Bivalvia: Veneroida)

Jean Béguinot

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v1i1262

In Bivalves, shell shape descriptors (in particular, elongation E, dissymmetry D, ventral convexity K) are considered functionally-relevant parameters, each of them likely being exposed to specific selective pressures, according to environmental conditions. Indeed, previous investigations, have repeatedly confirmed that different types of constraints do apply to the respective ranges of interspecific variations of E, D, K: in particular, a trend for a substantially extended range of interspecific variation of shell-elongation E (likely attributed to niche differentiation) and, on the contrary, a trend for a severely restricted range of interspecific variation of ventral-convexity K (closely centered at an optimum for mechanical resistance of valves). In turn, due to rigid geometrical relationships linking shell-shape to shell-growth, this pattern of constraints on shell-shape variations implies, mathematically, the occurrence of specifically associated covariances between shell-growth parameters, the occurrence of which were, indeed, repeatedly observed within all groups of shallow-waters clams examined so far. Yet, the fairly different environmental conditions prevailing at bathyal / abyssal depths invite addressing comparatively some typically deep-sea clams; hereafter the genus Calyptogena. Contrary to expectation, the same types of covariances between shell-growth parameters are reported in deep-sea Calyptogena as those reported in shallow-waters clams, thus suggesting less dissimilar patterns of constraints than expected between shallow waters and deep-sea conditions.