Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variation of Metallic Contamination of Water and Sediments in Navigation Canal and Industrial Zone South Port Said, Egypt

Nabil, A. E. Azzaz, Mokhtar, S. Beheary, Mohamed, N. Raslan, Hazem T. Abd El Hamid

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v1i4327

In the present study, water and sediment samples were collected from Navigation Canal and from Industrial Zone South Port Said to assess heavy metals contamination. It was shown that, the highest mean concentration of heavy metals in water samples was observed in summer, and the lowest mean was observed in winter. It has been made evident that the industrialization in Industrial Zone South Port Said was responsible for the present deteriorating conditions. However, it was shown that, the highest mean concentration of heavy metals in sediment samples was observed in winter, and the lowest mean was observed in summer. Pollution status was evaluated using some indices: geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and ecological risk index (RI). Based on Igeo, all metal values were unpolluted. On the basis of the values of CF, sediments are high in winter and low in summer. Metals concentrations were in the following order: Ni > Fe > Mn > Pb > Cu > Zn > Co > Cd. According to CF classification, Ni contamination was considerable. RI of winter season can be classified as moderate pollution. No pollution was classified for PLI in all seasons. The decrease in PLI and RI values were indicated dilution and dispersion of metal content with increasing distance from source areas. It is suggested that PLI can give an indication about the trend spatially and temporarily. In addition, it also provides significant data and advice to the policy and decision makers on the contamination degree of the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on the Biochemical Composition of the Flesh of Egeria radiata (Bivalvia: Donacidae) and Crassotrea rhizophorea (Perecypode: Lameillebrachia) of the Cross River State, Nigeria

Opeh, Patience Bassey

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v1i4340

The food and mineral contents of flesh of the two bivalve species (Egeria radiata and Crassostrea rhizophorea) of Cross river, Nigeria were investigated. The study revealed that the moisture content of E. radiata and C. rhizophorea was 52.46% and 54.01%, crude protein was 24.37% and 20.49%, fat was 9.03% and14.22%, crude fibre was 0.01% and 1.30%, ash was 1.43% and 9.05%, carbohydrate was 12.7% and 2.23% and energy was 229.58J and 218.84J. The mineral content of E. radiata and C. rhizophorea  showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in Ca+, Na+, K, Mg, while the Zn, Pb, Cu, Fe, P and Mn were similar (P>0.05). Based on the findings of this study, biochemical profile of E. radiata is high in nutrients and is suitable for human consumption. Therefore, concerted efforts should be made to enlighten the populace on the increased nutritional benefits of consuming E. radiata.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Fermented Mucuna pruriens Leaf Meal on Growth and Feed Utilisation of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

Rasaq Ibrahim, P. I. Bolorunduro, J. A. Adakole

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v1i4345

Feeding trial was conducted in 18 plastic tanks (60 x 45 x 30 cm) to assess the performance of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings fed diets containing fermented Mucuna pruriens leaf meal as an alternative protein source to soya bean meal. Five isonitrogenous (crude protein-40%) diets were formulated containing fermented Mucuna leaf meal (FMLM) at A(100% FMLM), B(75% FMLM), C(50% FMLM), D(25% FMLM) and E(0% FMLM) and were fed at 5% body weight to triplicate groups of 10 fingerlings (initial mean weight ranged from 6.20± 1.96g – 6.80± 1.97 g) of C. gariepinus for a period of twelve (12) weeks. Growth performance and feed utilisation parameters indicate that E(0% FMLM) diet gave the highest weight gain (168.87± 3.97g) but did not significantly (P≥0.05) differ from D(25% FMLM), (161.30±6.12 g), and the lowest weight gain (89.70± 1.96 g) was recorded in A(100% FMLM). Similarly, the highest specific growth rate (3.79±0.03 g) was recorded in E(0% FMLM)  followed by D(25% FMLM) (3.74±0.04 g), and the least value (3.10±0.02 g) was obtained in A(100% FMLM). However, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and gross feed conversion efficiency (GFCE) were not significantly different (P≥0.05) among the dietary treatments. The highest (1.72±0.12) and least (1.50±0.02) FCR were obtained in A(100% FMLM) and E(0% FMLM) respectively. The result from this study indicates that fermented Mucuna  leaf meal could replace soya bean meal up to 25% in the diets for C. gariepinus fingerlings without compromising growth and feed utilisation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Floating and Stability Effect on Fish Feed Pellets Using Different Concentration of Baobab Leaf Meal (Adansonia digitata)

Eze Felix, Eyo Victor Oscar

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v1i4348

The objective of this study was to evaluate the floating and stability of fish feed pellets formulated with different concentration of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaf meal (BLM). Five isonitrogenous fish feed (35% CP) with varying inclusion levels of Baobab leaf meal (0% BLM, 4% BLM, 8% BLM, 12% BLM and 16% BLM designated as D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 respectively was used. Ten (10) pellets of each experimental feed were placed in plastic beaker (55 x 25 x 30 cm) for 50 minutes. Feed pellet floatability and stability were recorded every five minutes. Results showed that feed pellet floatability increased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in BLM concentration. Highest feed pellet floatability (41.66 ± 2.88 minutes) was recorded in D5 (16% BLM) and least (0.00 ± 0.00 minutes) in D1 (0% BLM) which sank down immediately. Similarly, feed pellet stability increased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in BLM concentration. Highest pellet stability (42.66 ± 1.17 minutes) was recorded for D5 (16% BLM) and least (18.54 ± 2.10 minutes) in D1 (0% BLM). Based on these findings, it is concluded that 16% BLM inclusion level in fish feed has led to a high pellet floatability and stability. Therefore, Baobab leaf meal (BLM) which is relatively cheap, toxic free, easy to process and available specifically in Northern part of Nigeria is recommended for floating feed formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Concentrations of Nickel in Sediment and Periwinkle of Eagle Island River, Port Harcourt

Amadi, Fyneface Chikadibia, Emeji, Roseline, Osere, Hannah, Nwisah, Laurretta

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v1i426106

The study was carried out in Eagle Island River, located in Mgbuosimini community, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. In this study, the concentration of Nickel (Ni) in sediments and periwinkles (Tympanotonos fuscatus) were determined from 25 sampling stations in Eagle Island River. The portion of the periwinkle that was assayed was the edible part. The assay was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The mean±SD of Ni concentrations in sediments and periwinkles were 2.77±1.05 mg/kg and 6.25±1.98 mg/kg respectively. The mean concentration of Ni was higher in periwinkles than in sediments. The correlation coefficient between Ni concentrations in sediment and periwinkle was 32.7%. Following the increasing industrial activities and waste disposal in the water body, the need to regularly determine the concentrations of this heavy metal in the water, aquatic lives and sediments is imperative in order to uphold environmental and human health protection.