Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Hyperthermia on Erythrocyte Parameters of Carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) from Bardaca Swamp, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Subha Dzafic, Azra Bakrac, Damir Suljevic, Radoslav Dekic

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v2i430015

Thermal changes in water cause many metabolic changes that manifest themselves in physiological fish adaptations. The analysis of hematologic and biochemical blood parameters provides important information on environmental influences on the health status of fish. The hematocrit (HCT) (l/l), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) (g/l), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (fl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (pg), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (g/l) and red blood cells (RBC) (x1012/L) were analyzed. Animals were grouped into two groups: control (n=10) and experimental (n=16).

The experimental fish were exposed to 28°C for 30 min. Puncture of the heart was done and the blood without anticoagulant was analyzed. During hyperthermia, an increase in hematological parameters was observed, except for MCV values that were low. Significant differences were established only for the number of erythrocytes and the hematocrit values (p<0.05).

The results showed a decrease in MCV and an increase in the value of other erythrocyte parameters. Significant changes in the number of erythrocyte and hematocrit values were found. Some hematological parameters such as erythrocyte and MCV values are significant stress indicators and can serve us as important factors for physiological adaptations of fish.

The carp shows excellent ability to adjust to temperature variations that can be seen through the analysis of hematological status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Health Risks Due to Fish Consumption from Nile River at Beni-Suef-Governorate- Egypt

Fatma Mabrook, Hossam F. Nassar, Asmaa S. Hamouda, Hamada M. Mahmoud

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v2i430016

Aims: The present study aimed to determine the growth indices of the Nile Tilapia, detected levels of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr in muscles of Tilapia and expected the potential adverse human health risks according to USEPA methodologies.

Study Design: The design of the study depended on the determination of the impact of the drainage waste water on the fish quality, ecosystem health and human health.

Place and Duration of the Study: the study investigated five sampling sites, two sites in the Torrent drainage channel and three sites on the Nile River during winter and summer seasons of 2014-2015 at Beni-Suef governorate in Egypt.

Methodology: Fish tissue samples were dried at 105°C for 6 hours, burned in a muffle furnace for 6 hours at 550°C, acid-digested, and diluted with deionized water to known volume using the dry-ashing procedure. All the digested samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 2380). Analytical blanks were run in the same way as the samples, and standard solutions were prepared in the same acid matrix.

Results: Metals were found to accumulate in fish muscles at the following order Zn> Cu> Cr> Pb. Levels of Zn and Pb exceeded the permissible limits of the world health organization (WHO) especially during summer season. The calculated hazard quotients for all the detected metals did not pose unacceptable risks at both consumption rates, but the excessive and continuous consumption of fish from the current sampling sites could induce cancer for habitual consumers.

Conclusion: The present study could be considered as a beginning for further investigations for the health status of Nile River aquatic ecosystems and human populations feeding on fish produced from the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Fish Species Caught by Cast Net in New Calabar River, Nigeria

Henry Eyina Dienye, Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v2i430017

The length -weight relationship and condition factor (K) of fish species caught by cast net were studied from three stations in the New Calabar River, Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of 1541 specimens of 26 fish species and representing 11 families were randomly collected using cast net with mesh sizes of 1.5 and 2.5 cm. Sample sizes of the different fish species examined in this study ranged from 8.79±0.25 cm (Caranx hippos specie) to 31.48±4.93 cm (Sphyraena barracuda specie) in total length and 15.45±0.40 g (Elops lacerta) to 156.00±39.30 g (Pelmatolapia mariae) in weight. The entire length-weight data in all the three stations were pooled together and the calculated correlation coefficient showed a high positive correlation (1.00) between length and weight of all the fish species except in Caranx hippos (0.18) with low positive correlation. The b value obtained ranged from 2.13 for Ethmalosa fimbriata with negative allomerty to 3.53 for Pelmatolapia mariae with positive allometry. By negative allometry (b < 3), the fish is said to be lighter for its length as it grows and (b>3), the fish gains weight as it grows. The mean condition factor ranged from 0.36 ± 0.03 recorded for Sphyraena barracuda to 2.20 ± 0.02 for Coptodon guineensis and Coptodon zillii. Apart from Sphyraena barracuda general wellbeing of all the fish species were found to be good, as indicated by the values of condition factor, which were nearer to or greater than 1. The results of the present study will provide an effective tool for further studies of population dynamics and stock assessment studies in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Solid State Fermentation of Plant Protein Meals Using Lactobacillus acidophilus for Improving Feed Value

U. D. Enyidi, S. Ekeh

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v2i430018

Usage of some legumes and oil seed meal as fishmeal substitute is hampered by low protein content and anti nutritional factors (ANF). Inclusion of some exogenous enzyme cocktail like phytase, xylanase can reduce some ANF but is costly. Solid state fermentation of plant proteins is affordable and could be useful in upgrading the protein content, elevating the nutrient and mineral status and eliminating ANF from plant-based feed ingredients. We therefore extracted Lactobacillus acidophilus from intestine of adult African catfish. Extracted L. acidophilus was cultured at 37°C for 48 hrs in Mueller-Hinton Broth. Approximately 10 g of the bacteria broth containing 9.4 log 10 colony forming unit (CFU) per ml was mixed with 200 g meals of bambaranut meal and African yam beans meal placed in a brown bottom flask. The ground meals and bacteria mixtures were fermented for 72 hours. Temperature was maintained at 28.6°C to 34°C. The pH of the mixtures was measured everyday and the fermenting mixture was regularly stirred. Fermentation was stopped after 72 hrs and the meals were subjected to proximate analysis. Protein content of the meals significantly increased (P<0.05) as follows: BNM, 24.82±0.15% to 40.37±0.27% and AYB, 23.65±0.07% to 34.56±1.36%. Lipid content of meals significantly increased (P<0.05) as follows BNM, 7.11±0.01 to 14.29±0.05% and AYB, 2.96±0.45% to 5.76±0.09%. There was general decrease in composition of carbohydrate and ANFs were drastically reduced or completely eliminated from the meals.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Stocking Density Impairs Mineral Content of Brown Trout

Mehtap Bayir, Gökhan Arslan, Abdulkadir Bayir

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2018/v2i430019

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of high stocking density on mineral content of muscle and liver in brown trout. Juvenile fish were stocked in experimental tanks as triplicates for 90 days. Initial stocking density was 10 kg m-3 for control and 50 kg m-3 for high stocking density group. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for the indication of mineral concentrations. Stocking density was calculated by dividing the weight of the fish in the tank water volume (kg m-3). The average values of P, K, Mg, Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were found 2012.3, 958.0, 560.0, 506.1, 60.3, 31.5, 10.6 1.61 and 0.27 mg kg-1, respectively, in muscle of fish reared high stocking density and the values for same minerals were found 2463.6, 1594.8, 866.2, 762.5, 155.7, 65.0, 20.0, 1.96, and 0.37 mg kg-1, in muscle of control group. However, P, K, Mg, Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn values were 1612.3, 1501.1, 530.0, 266.8, 129.2, 52.7, 0.82, 0.32, and 0.12 mg kg-1 in liver of fish reared in high stocking density and 2270.4, 2063.6, 1300.8, 644.6, 189.6, 80.1, 1.59, 0.39 and 0.24 mg kg-1 in liver of control group. It was concluded that that overcrowded condition causes to decrease amount of liver and muscle mineral content in brown trout.