Background and Objective: Phenanthrene (PHE) is a constituent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), considered as one of the most abundant marine pollutants. It is mainly derived from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The aim of this study was to investigate the histological changes in gill’s structure of marine cultured tilapia fish larvae (Oreochromis spilurus).
Methodology: The larvae of the tilapia were fed phenanthrene contaminated feed twice a day for 14 days; the experiment was terminated on Day 14. The effect of phenanthrene on the gill’s structure was noticed and compared to the control group.
Results: There were noticeable histological changes on gills after treatment including; hypertrophy and fusion of the secondary lamellae. The mucus cell numbers in gill’s sections increased in the group treated with 100 mg L-1 of phenanthrene until the termination of the experiment. Conclusion: The deleterious effect of phenanthrene on gills histology was evidence at 100 mg L-1 and further studies are recommended on the histological effects of phenanthrene on other tissues of the tilapia fish.
Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 27th June-2019. Related policy is available here: http://goo.gl/lI77Nn
Aim: Morphometry of Thais spp found in the Niger Delta Mangrove vegetation of Bakana, Calabar and Nembe were examined and compared.
Study Design: The study is a cross-sectional observational study
Place and Duration of Study: The study ws carried out in Bakana, Calabar and Nembe during a period of six months(January to June, 2018).
Methodology: A total of 600 specimens (100 specimens per month) were collected during a period of six months (January to June 2018) from the three sampling communities. Three different species were identified namely: Thais coronata, Thais haemastoma and Thais lacera. Shell dimensions were measured to the nearest millimeter using Vernier calipers and weighed, to get the morphometric Characteristics: Whorl Diameter (WD), Shell length (SL), Shell width (SW), Body whorl length (BWL), Aperture length (AL), Aperture Width (AW) Shell Breadth (SB), and Animal Weight (AW). Number of whorls, number of primary spiral cord on the body and number of ridges or teeth inside of outer tip of the aperture were counted.
Results: The disparity between the morphometric traits across the different species identified were minimal as most of the species had similar values of morphometric traits. However, differences can be identified using their colour; thais coronata (dirty light grey), T haemastoma (light grey), and T lacera (plane grey). The Three (3) species had a modal length class of 3.5cm to 4.5cm. Thais coronata and Thais lacera had a modal weight class of 9-11grams while Thais haemastoma had a modal weight class of 6-7grams. It was observed with the aid of length/weight relationship that the found in all study.
Conclusion: It was observed with the aid of length/weight relationship that the Thais specimen found in all study locations exhibited a very weak linear relationship with very low R2 values across locations. The exponent b of Thais coronata and Thais haemastoma and T. lacera across the three study locations indicate a negative allometric growth pattern. The Month of April for samples collected from Nembe had the highest condition factor for the three (3) species. T. coronata (4.4), T. lacera (6.38) and T haemastoma (5.5).
This study evaluated the proximate, mineral elements, and vitamins composition of oven-dried Schilbe mystus, Bagrus bayad, Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias anguillaris and Petrocephalus bane bane from Tiga Reservoir. The fishes were obtained from landing site of Tiga reservoir at Rano, they were beheaded, degutted and cleaned with distilled water and oven-dried to a constant weight at 105°C. Grinded form of samples were used for wet digestion and the contents were analyzed according to standard methods at the Biochemistry laboratory, University of Jos, The proximate content of the fishes varied significantly (p<0.05), with mean values of 4.79 - 9.52 g/100 g moisture content, 42.20 - 57.71 g/100 g crude protein, 0.90 - 12.51 g/100 g ash content, 3.41 - 9.93 g/100 g ether extract, 0.62 - 5.08 g/100 g crude fibre, 12.28 - 42.70 g/100 g nitrogen free extract and 90.48 - 95.21 g/100 g dry matter. Based on the FAO/WHO recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs), calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc were found in appreciable amount. The vitamin content of the fishes were above the WHO recommended limits, peak values of vitamins B1 (33.88 mg/l), B6 (15.83 mg/l), B12 (3.04 mg/l), were observed in P. bane bane alone. Whereas, C. anguillaris, O. niloticus and S. mystus contained the highest values of vitamins A (15.87 mg/l), C (1.22 mg/l) and E (4.22 mg/l) respectively. It has shown that all the fishes could be utilized as sources of protein, mineral elements and vitamins for human and animal foods.
Aims: This study analyses the economic performance and gender distribution of the small-scale aquaculture of Ghana using Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Cash flow as well as gender distribution of the small-scale aquaculture of Ghana.
Study Design: This study is exploratory in its design. The study identified certain relationships and associations. Data was gathered from a sample drawn from a population. Questionnaire-based interview was designed and administered to the small scale fish farmers in the Sunyani metropolis. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods will be employed for the study. A case study method will also be used due to the fact that it has the benefit of permitting for an intensive collection of data required to fulfil the goals of the research
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Sunyani Municipality in the Brong Ahafo Region of the Republic of Ghana between November 2017 and February 2018.
Methodology: The study randomly selected 20 farms out 40 farms and farmers interviewed using questionnaire. A 600 m2 pond was further selected as a model of the small-scale aquaculture and used to perform the economic analysis.
Results: The total start-up capital for a 600-meter square pond is estimated at $2693.15. Huge part, 56.9 percent, of the amount goes into fixed investment like pond construction, acquisition of land, and farm buildings. The economic analysis shows a viable industry with an estimated NPV of $605.4484 and IRR of 24.19 percent.
With gender, the study reveals a huge gap in man-woman distribution in the fish farming trade. Majority of the farms surveyed did not females, with the male having 77 against the female with 23%.
Conclusion: The study has found a viable aquaculture industry with high profitability that can improve the livelihood of fish farming households.
The textile industry is one of the significant industries which produces large amount of wastewater effluents all year. The kind of these effluents has the features of higher rate of BOD, COD, complex structure, color, great emission and hard degradation. If being directly discharged without treatment, it will cause a potential hazard to the aquatic ecosystem and human. This paper provides the literature information about the environmental concern and their toxicity effects as well as classification of dyes. This review will present the methods for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution and wastewater effluents. The various dye removal techniques are classified into biological, chemical, physical methods, in addition to combination treatments. Biological methods include aerobic and anaerobic degradation bioremediation by bacteria & fungi and algae, while chemical methods comprise coagulation or flocculation combined through floatation and filtration, precipitation, electro floatation, electro kinetic coagulation, conventional oxidation methods by oxidizing agents such as ozone, irradiation or electrochemical processes. Furthermore, physical technologies as adsorption, ion exchange and filtration coagulation methods.