Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Calcium Bentonite Clay Supplementation in Aflatoxigenic Mould Contaminated Feeds for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Remisha Olokkaran, Saleena Mathew

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2020/v10i130169

Aflatoxins are toxic, carcinogenic secondary metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus fungi that is often detected in food and agricultural commodities. Calcium bentonite clay has been used historically as an anti-caking agent and a feed binder and demonstrated the ability to bind aflatoxins. Feed samples were prepared for Nile tilapia to determineaflatoxin detoxification properties of calcium bentonite clay. 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% of this clay was incorporated into Aspergillus flavus contaminated feed and labeled as TF1, TF2, TF3, TF4, and TF5 respectively. The determination and quantification of aflatoxins produced by the fungus in the feed samples were carried out by HPTLC method. The RF values of all the feed samples were confirmed to be the presence of aflatoxin B1 and AFB2, G1 and G2 toxins were not found in any of the samples. Results from this study revealed that the calcium bentonite clay at 2% effectively reduced AFB1 toxin by its adsorption properties. Moreover, calcium bentonite clay improved water stability, water absorption rate with minimal disintegration and nutrients leaching of feed samples in water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Addition of Nilem Fish Protein Concentrate to Find Its Preferred Level in Cakwe

Tahira Alifah, . Junianto, Iis Rostini, Rusky Intan Pratama

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2020/v10i130170

Nilem fish (Osteochilus hasselti) are native Indonesian fish that live in freshwaters, such as rivers and swamps. This research aims to determine the right level of nilem fish protein concentrate addition to the preferred level of cakwe. The design is using a non-factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with four levels of treatment like 0% or without the addition of nilem fish protein concentrate, 2.5% addition of nilem fish protein concentrate, 5% addition of nilem fish protein concentrate, and 7.5% addition of nilem fish protein concentrate. The parameters tested are organoleptic showing color, aroma, texture, and taste carried out by 20 semi-trained panelists. The results showed that cakwe with 5% nilem fish protein concentrate is mostly preferred by consumers with organoleptic values (color 6.9, aroma 7.3, texture 6.5, and taste 7.3). 

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Fish Consumption and Fish Distribution: A Study on Sunyani Municipality, Ghana

Rhoda Foli, Isaac Awuni, Samuel K. K. Amponsah

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 28-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2020/v10i130173

Fish consumption and marketing has become an essential phenomenon due to the increasing appreciation of the health and the economic benefits of fish to households in Ghana. Given this, the study sought to identify the pattern of fish consumption and distribution channels using semi-structured interview guides, administered to fifty (50) consumers and fifty (50) fish traders. Data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Scomber japonicus, Sardinella aurita, Trachurus trachurus and Clarias gariepinus were the most preferred consumed fish. The majority of consumers preferred smoked fish to other fish products based on taste, flavor, shelf life, and wholesomeness in diets. Based on the findings from the binary logistic model, educated respondents as well as respondents below 20 years could be more prone to calcium deficient diseases, particularly in the absence of supplementary sources of calcium in their diets. Fish traders purchased their fish products from Sunyani, Yeji, Techiman, Cape Cost, and Buipe. The study showed that simple and complex marketing and distributing channels for frozen and smoked fish products, respectively. The main challenge encountered by fish traders and consumers was fish spoilage. Fish traders should be schooled on proper fish handling techniques to reduce the rate of fish spoilage. Sensitization programs regarding the consumption of fish products entirely must be promoted among consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Glyphosate-Induced Residues in Muscles of Juvenile Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

C. F. Ikeogu, O. O. Ikpeze, T. O. Omobowale, B. E Olufemi

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 40-49
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2020/v10i130174

Aims: This study focused on acute toxicity of Glyphosate and its residual effect on muscles of juvenile Clarias gariepinus fish, as well as on L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) treatment of induced glyphosate residues in muscles of the fish to prevent bioaccumulation of glyphosate and subsequent toxicity when consumed by humans.

Study Design: Latin square.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka. Nigeria, between December 2018 and April 2019.

Methodology: Forty-eight hours acute toxicity tests were initially carried out on eight juveniles of C. gariepinus of mean weight 41.50±1.35g and length 20.75±0.43cm to determine LC50 of both glyphosate (Delsate®) and Vitamin C (Kepro®). Thereafter the fish were exposed for 91 days to sub-lethal concentrations of 0.0 (control), 5.0, 10.0 and 15mgL-1 glyphosate; and later treated separately with 50 and 100 mgL-1 of vitamin C for 7 days. A second set of fish was exposed to glyphosate and vitamin C concurrently for 91 days. Glyphosate residues in the muscles of the fish were determined by gas chromatography.

Results: The LC50 of Delsate® and Kepro® were 75 and 175 mgL⁻¹ respectively. There was significant increase (P<.05) in mean values of glyphosate retained in muscles of fish exposed to glyphosate for 91days when compared with the control. Seven days post-exposure treatment with vitamin C resulted in significant decrease (P<.05) in glyphosate residues in fish muscles; with 100mgL-1 of vitamin C being more effective than the 50 mgL⁻¹. The second set-up did not show significant therapeutic effects on the muscles of C. gariepinus.

Conclusion: This work has determined the LC50 of glyphosate and Vitamin C. Glyphosate residues in muscles of exposed fish could be rendered safe for human consumption by treatment of exposed fish in water bath containing with Vitamin C. Our on-going research is on histopathological alterations in tissues of glyphosate-exposed C. gariepinus juvenile fishes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shelf Life of Nori from Gracilaria sp. with Polypropylene (PP) Packaging Based on the Accelerated Shelf Life Test Method

Sapinatun Namira, Evi Liviawaty, Isni Nurruhwati, Eddy Afrianto

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 50-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2020/v10i130175

This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Fisheries Products Processing, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, West Java, Indonesia. The purpose of this research was to determine the shelf life of Nori from Gracilaria sp. with the Accelerated Shelf Life Test (ASLT) method Arrhenius Model using Polypropylene (PP) packaging. Gracilaria is a genus of red algae (Rhodophyta) used as a food for humans and various species of shellfish. Polypropylene (PP) is a shiny, clear plastic with good optical properties and tensile resistance. The determination of the shelf life of the ASLT method is carried out using parameters of environmental conditions that can accelerate the process of product quality degradation, namely by storing the product at several temperatures above normal storage temperature. The observations used in determining the shelf life of Gracilaria sp. using a sensory test and a water content test with storage for 35 days, at a temperature of 25°C and 35°C. The calculation results of the Arrhenius model used texture parameters as critical parameters because those had the lowest Activation Energy (Ea) in determining the shelf life of Gracilaria sp. which is packaged using PP plastic. The results showed the value used for determining the shelf life of nori Gracilaria sp. namely texture parameters based on the order 0 reaction with the Arrhenius plot Ln K = -2.0381 - 214.63 (1 / T) and Ea of 1784.6485. The shelf life of nori Gracilaria sp. was found to be elongated if stored at room temperature of (25°C) which was around 94 days.