Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research,
Aim: Abattoirs are one of the most pronounced but yet ignored sources of highly recalcitrant wastewater that has significant impacts on the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of Kabundaire abattoir effluents on the quality of water in the receiving Mpanga river, Fort Portal tourism city of Uganda. The study also estimated the amount of water used and wastewater generated in the facility between December 2018 and December 2019, and the number of animals slaughtered per month in the abattoir.
Study Design: This research employed a quantitative research design.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from six different sites of Mpanga river at intervals of 2 km from Fort Portal town: upstream (Kahungabunyoni and Kagote A), midstream/ effluent discharge point (Kabundaire and Mpanga market) and downstream (Rwabuhinga and Kitumba) along Mpanga river stretch in the morning and evening hours. The analyses were done at National Water & Sewerage Corporation, Fort Portal, Uganda. The sampling and experimental work was done between May 2019 and August 2019.
Methodology: The physicochemical properties (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrates and total phosphates) and microbiological (Escherichia coli and total coliform) profile of the water samples were determined following standard methods. To quantify the amount of water used and wastewater generated, the number of cattle, goats and sheep slaughtered per day between December 2018 and April 2019 were retrieved from abattoir records and extrapolated.
Results: Analytical results indicated that the evaluated water quality parameters were in the range of 6.93 ± 0.02 to 7.90 ± 0.16, 22.0 ± 0.14 ℃ to 23.6 ± 0.26 ℃, 0.01 ± 0.00 mg/L to 0.26 ± 0.02 mg/L, 6.30 ± 0.03 mg/L to 10.00 ± 0.03 mg/L, 4.20 ± 0.05 mg/L to 9.70 ± 0.02 mg/L, 4 × 102 CFU/mL to 48 × 103 CFU/mL, 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL to 6.6 × 106 CFU/mL for pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total phosphates, total nitrates, Escherichia coli and total coliforms, respectively. Most of the parameters were above permissible limits except pH, temperature and total nitrates. An average of 133 cattle, 78 goats and 33 sheep are slaughtered in Kabundaire abattoir every month. The actual number varies by month, depending on the demand for meat. The amount of water used, and the wastewater generated were estimated at 15,768 m3/year and 18,396 m3/year, respectively.
Conclusion: Discharge of effluents from Kabundaire abattoir into Mpanga river negatively affects its water quality. Mpanga river water is not safe for domestic use without further treatment/purification. We recommend that an anaerobic wastewater treatment facility should be installed at Kabundaire abattoir to enhance environmental conservation. Further studies should determine the actual amount of water used and wastewater generated at the facility.