Open Access Minireview Article
Disease is one of the obstacles in shrimp farming. Many countries have experienced economic losses due to disease in shrimp caused by microbes. Many strategies are being used to overcome the problem such as antibiotics, formalin, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and others. However, the use antibiotics in long term can cause negative effects. So that, the development of potential new natural compounds is required to overcome this problem. This review article aims to explain the nutritional content, bioactive compounds, antimicrobial potential, and the effect of S. alba and S. caseolaris on shrimp survival. Sonneratia alba and Sonneratia caseolaris are plants that have many bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenolics. They have also been shown to inhibit the growth of bacteria such as Vibrio harveyi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saprolegnia sp., and others. Application of S. alba and S. caseolaris can also increase the survival rate of infected shrimps. S. alba and S. caseolaris have the potential to be used as antimicrobial agents and can be used to protect shrimp from microbial pathogens.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: The aim of the study is to identify helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of Oreochromis niloticus in Dadin Kowa Dam, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area, Gombe State.
Study design: Oreochromis niloticus fish species were randomly obtained from the local fishermen in the landing sites; between 7:00am-10:00am weekly.
Place and duration of study: The study was carried out at Dadin Kowa Dam in Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area of Gombe State between the months of March to June, 2019.
Methodology: 60 Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) were obtained and examined for gastro intestinal parasites. Sex of the fish was determined by the presence and absent of an intromittent organ. The total length, standard length and body weight was measured using standard method. Dissection was done using standard procedure and the Parasites recovered were identified using the helminth parasites of fish identification guide.
Results: Out of the 60 fish species examined. (23 female and 37 males), 21 (35.00%) were infected and were observed to habour six (6) endoparasites; viz nematodes, Cestodes and trematodes. The results show that there was a significant difference between infection rate, total length and weight of fish with female species having relatively higher percentage prevalence 11(43.50%) than the males 10 (29.70%). It was observed that the prevalence of parasitic infection increase with length and weight of the fish.
Conclusion: Presence of these fish helminth parasites may lead to devaluation in protein constant in the body of the fish. The work therefore recommends water quality assessment of Dams as it is one of the factors that bring about the increase in parasitic infection.
Open Access Original Research Article
Fish is significant as a vector of disease pathogen of human and animals. The study of the helminthes parasites of Clarias gariepinus in Abraka was carried out to investigate the occurrence, prevalence and intensity of helminthes parasites in Clarias gariepinus; and to compare the helminthes parasites burden of the wild and cultured Clarias gariepinus in Abraka fresh water. A total number of four hundred and nine (409) Clarias gariepinus were examined. Collection of fish samples was done monthly for twelve months. The external parts of each fish were examined with a hand lens for the occurrence of helminthes parasites. Portions of the muscles were also teased apart in saline water and examined under the microscope first at x 40 and later x 100 oil immersion. Organs of the body were examined separately in petri dishes containing normal saline. The different groups of parasites recovered were preserved in formaldehyde and identified using prescribed methods. Of the 409 C. gariepinus examined, 172 were infected, showing an infection rate of 42.1%. C. gariepinus from the wild had a higher prevalence of 31.1% while those from culture ponds had a lower prevalence of 11%. A total of 485 parasites were recovered, comprising of 113 trematodes and 372 nematodes which represents 23.3% and 76.7% respectively. Identified trematodes included Diplosomum sp., Macrogyrodactylus sp., and Quadriancanthus sp., while namatodes included Procamallanus sp. and an Ascarid nematode. The highest intensity of infection of 3.11 was recorded in the Ascarid nematode while the least of 1.25 came from Diplostomum sp. in C. gariepinus caught from the wild. Although, there appears to be a lack of reported cases of the occurrence of the ascarid nematode that was recovered from the muscles of C. gariepinus in literature, it is evident from this study that it is a common endoparasite of the African catfish in Abraka freshwater.
Open Access Review Article
The purpose of writing this article is to examine throughout searching articles and other literature on the types and classifications of food additives, the development of processed fishery products, and the application of food additives in processed fishery products. Based on search results from various articles and other literature it can be concluded that the classification of Food Additives according to the Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia No. 722 / Menkes / Per / IX / 88  are as follows: dyes, artificial sweeteners, preservatives, antioxidants, anti-stick, flavor and aroma, acidity regulators, bleach or flour, emulsifiers, stabilizers and thickeners, hardeners and sequestrants. Fishery products can be developed to increase added value and zero waste.
Open Access Review Article
The purpose of this review article is to examine the method of making gelatin, the characteristics of gelatin from the results of research that has been carried out in Indonesia and the benefits of fish gelatin. Based on a review of various articles and other literature, it can be concluded that fish bone gelatin can be extracted by the acid method. The production of fishbone gelatin consists of 4 stages, the preparation of raw materials includes removal of non-collagen components from raw materials, conversion of collagen to gelatin, purification of gelatin by filtering and finally drying and powdering. Fishbone gelatin can be applied to both the food and non-food industries.