Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Fish Silages from Fish Entrails and Its Nutritional Evaluation

Md. Farhan Tazim, Md. Nazrul Islam, Afrin Sultana, Mohammed Rashed Parvej, Al Mamun, Md. Abdullah Al-Mamun

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v13i430269

The study was undertaken to investigate fish entrails (heads, bones, viscera, fins) suitability as raw materials for fish silage production for the fish feed supplement. Two types of fish silages were prepared using pure culture of Lactobacillus as lactic fermentation starter and formic acid as acid fermenter. Lactobacilli was isolated and identified for the preparation of fermentation starter from fresh milk. The starter bacteria and molasses were added to minced raw materials in three different compositions to produce three fermented silages and 3% formic acid was used for acid silage production. Biochemical changes were monitored continuously during the fermentation of the silages. Non-protein nitrogen concentration increased from an initial value of 19.56% to 42%. The proximate composition of the final products after 80 days of fermentation on dry matter basis showed that acid silage contained higher crude protein (31.25±0.75%) than fermented silages (21±0.54% - 28±1.11%). Crude lipid content didn’t show any significant differences among silages prepared (P>0.5). Most of the essential amino acids were present in fairly good concentration in all the silages which are comparable to those of the FAO/WHO requirement. Protein content and the amino acid profile of the silages suggest that it should be possible to partially replace with fish meal in feeds for fish and animal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Preferred Level of Biscuits Fortified With Nilem Fish Egg Protein Concentrate

Ustman Sidik Muslihudin, Evi Liviawaty, Emma Rochima, . Junianto

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v13i430270

Fish eggs are an essential source of protein to increase nutritional value because of their excellent quality protein content but have not been widely used, especially in food processing. Biscuits are one of the most consumed products globally, made from cereal flour such as wheat flour or other flour. Four different formulations containing nilem fish egg protein concentrate (NFEPC) were used in this study to produce biscuit samples with better sensory characteristics and higher protein content. This study aimed to determine the level of addition of nilem fish egg protein concentrate in the biscuits making, which panelists preferred based on their organoleptic assessment. In this study, the method used was an experimental method with four levels of treatment of nilem fish egg protein concentrate with concentrations of 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% (w/w) carried out on the organoleptic characteristics, which include the appearance, aroma, texture, and taste of biscuits. The results showed that the optimum addition of nilem FEPC was at a 2.5% level preferred by consumers regarding all characteristics (appearance, aroma, texture, and flavor), with the average score ranging from 5.7 to 6.2 on average.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aspects of Stock Assessment of Klunzinger's Mullet, Planiliza klunzengeri (Day, 1888) from Northwest Arabian Gulf, Iraq

Ali H. Al-Hassani, Abdul-Razak M. Mohamed

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 25-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v13i430272

The stock assessment of Klunzinger's mullet, Planiliza klunzengeri was conducted, to estimate its some aspects viz. growth, mortality, recruitment, yield-per-recruit and virtual population analysis in Iraqi marine waters, northwest Arabian Gulf, Iraq, from February 2020 and January 2021. The population parameters were analyzed by the FiSAT software using monthly length-frequency data collected by the Shaheen dhow and from the artisanal fishermen at the fish landing site in Al-Fao city to derive information required for their management. A total of 3319 individuals of P. klunzingeri ranged from 11.0 to 27.0 cm have been collected. Length-weight relationship was calculated as W= 0.026L2.716. The asymptotic length (L∞), growth rate (K) and the growth performance index (Ø') were 29.8 cm, 0.34 and 2.48, respectively. The rates of annual instantaneous of total mortality (Z), fishing mortality (F), natural mortality (M) and present exploitation (Epresent) were 1.19, 0.84, 0.36 and 0.30, respectively. The recruitment pattern of P. klunzingeri was continuous throughout the year, with one peak during May. The results of virtual population analysis revealed that the majority of P. klunzingeri were harvested between 14 cm and 19 cm. The length at first capture (L50) in the current study was higher than the length at first maturity (Lm) of the species in the region. The Epresent was below the biological target reference points (E0.1= 0.770 and Emax= 0.903), referred to the stock of P. klunzingeri is underexploited. Therefore, the harvest level should increase to its maximum sustainable yield level by increasing fishing effort level with monitoring surveys and evaluate the risk associated with fishing effort increases as fishing precautionary approaches.

Open Access Review Article

Fishbone Flour (Definition, Analysis of Quality Characteristics, Manufacture): A Review

Adzhani Yusrina, Emma Rochima, Asep Agus Handaka, Iis Rostini

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v13i430271

Fish bones are the largest contributor of waste from the fish processing industry which has not been used optimally. Fish bones have a high calcium content so they can be used as raw material for fish bone flour. This article aims to explain the use of fish bone into fish bone flour, how to process it, and the quality of fish bone flour by physicochemical testing. Fish bone flour can be obtained by extraction using water, alkaline solution and acid solution. The quality characteristics of bone flour can be seen from the water content, ash content, protein content and fat content. Based on several studies, the drying time and temperature affect the physicochemical characteristics of the resulting product.

Open Access Review Article

A Review: Methods of Smoking for the Quality of Smoked Fish

Aulia Andhikawati, Dian Yuni Pratiwi

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 37-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v13i430273

Fish that have been caught are susceptible to decay and damage which are influenced by the level of acidity, weather, processing and storage methods, and temperature during transportation. This causes losses to the fishery business. One way that can be used to reduce the damage and spoilage of fish is through smoking. The purpose of this review article is to describe various methods of fish smoking, the chemical composition of smoked fish, and the number of microbes present in smoked fish. Smoked fish still contains nutrients such as protein, lipids, fiber, amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. The growth of microbes, especially those that are pathogenic, is inhibited and even some microbes cannot grow so that smoked fish is still good for human consumption. The microbes that cannot grow include Vibrio spp, yeast, mold, and Salmonella sp. Hot smoking method uses a temperature of 30-90oC, while cold smoking uses a temperature of 30-40oC. The chemical composition contained in smoked fish such as water content, protein, ash content, crude fiber, amino acids, biogenic amines, minerals and phenols. While the microbiological content of smoked fish with hot and cold smoking methods has a TPC value according to smoked fish standards and is free from pathogenic microbes, fungi, yeast and molds.