Open Access Minireview Article

A Mini- review : Effect of Phyllantus niruri L. on Growth and Health of Fish

Rosidah ., Titin Herawati, Yuli Andriani

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630346

Phyllanthus niruri L. is one of the herbal ingredients that has been widely used to treat various diseases in humans such as intestinal infections, kidney stones, chronic liver disease, diabetes, hepatitis B, asthma, gonorrhea, bronchitis, syphilis and boost the immune system. The ability of P. niruri in overcoming various diseases is based on its phytochemical content and pharmacological properties. Based on these properties, the plant may possibly be used as a drug to treat diseases in fish. So the purpose of writing this article is to review the extent to which P. niruri can be used as an alternative medicine to treat disease and maintain fish health. Secondary metabolites and phyllanthine as specific compounds present in P. niruri have antibacterial effects for types of bacteria that usually attack fish such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, it has the effect of being an antioxidant, immunostimulant and can be used for treatment and to increase fish growth.  So it can be concluded that P. niruri can be used as an alternative material to maintain health and help fish growth.

Open Access Minireview Article

The Potency of Ludwigia adscendens and L. octovalvis as Phytoremediator Macrophytes in Indonesia

Radjali Amin, Rizky Agustri Mafikalita Sari, Dewi Rahyuni

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 78-86
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630352

The potency of Ludwigia adscendens and L. octovalvis as phytoremediator macrophytes in Indonesia was reviewed. The characteristics of these species might be essential information for operators who wanted to implement phytoremediation in their sites. Information and articles about these species in Indonesia was collected through Google-Scholar during the first week of February 2021 and reviewed. Many studies about phytoremediation focused only on the capabilities of macrophytes to remove contaminants from water and paid only little attention to their compatibility with the ecosystem leading to upset the ecosystem. To Indonesia, these two species were introduced and became weeds, with different ecological characteristics. In Indonesia, scarce phytoremediation studies using these species were detected. Therefore, although these species were classified as weeds it was, remained, worthwhile to investigate further these species to be used in the phytoremediation of water.

Open Access Minireview Article

Relevance of Water Recirculating System in Modern Aquaculture

J. O. Ed-Idoko

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 107-113
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630355

The review of water recirculation in aquaculture practice presents the reality and benefits of a developed system for effective water re-use with optimum water quality, for intensive fish production. This advanced mechanism of adequate water re-use proves its relevance as it provides for intensive fish production, conservation of available water, conservation of available space, ease in site location, flexibility to locate production facilities near large markets, quick and effective disease control, complete and convenient harvesting, species and harvest diversity especially where available water for culture purpose is limited (considering how water intensive aquaculture is), and salvaging endangered species. The practice of recirculating aquaculture through Recirculating Aquaculture systems needs basic orientation for fish farmers especially in developing aquaculture practice areas, since it can be carried out at different intensities. Recirculating Aquaculture System is hence an optional technology for farming aquatic organisms that should be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial and Monthly Changes in Interstitial Water Physico-Chemistry of Bodo Creek

D. K. Nkeeh, A. I. Hart, E. S. Erondu, N. Zabbey

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630345

Water plays a key role in the survival, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms. Therefore maintaining good quality of water physico-chemical parameters would ensure optimum productivity of aquatic fauna. The study evaluated water physical and chemical parameters (temperature, hydrogen ion concentration (pH), conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of Bodo Creek. Sample was collected for 5 months (July 2020 – November 2020) at locations previously studied (before-spill baseline studies, 3 years, 5 years, and 7 years after-spill); by using the sampling methods used in previous studies. Spatially, there was no statistically significant difference in temperature (p > 0.05 = 0.997), pH (p > 0.05 = 0.496), DO (p > 0.05= 0.34) and BOD (p > 0.05 = 0.644). However, the difference in conductivity between the stations was statistically significant (p < 0.05 = 0.006). On monthly basis, there was a significant difference in temperature (p < 0.05 = 0.000) and pH (p < 0.05 = 0.005). In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in conductivity (p > 0.05 = 0.633), DO (p > 0.05 = 0.559) and BOD (p > 0.05 = 0.75). Most of the physico-chemical parameters were not within the WHO recommended levels for the survival of aquatic lives, indicating a high level of environmental pollution in Bodo Creek. This study provides dataset for future evaluation of the water physico-chemistry of Bodo Creek.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecophysiological Effects of Waterborne Zinc on Ctenopharyngodon idellus

Wanjun Li, Yiguo Xia, Li Liu, Yulian Yan, Xiaojun Xie

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 18-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630347

The juvenile Ctenopharyngodon idellus (19.68±0.17 g) were exposed to the solutions of zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO4.7H2O), to observe the toxic effects of waterborne Zn on this fish. The results showed that the median lethal concentration (LC50) over 96 h of waterborne Zn2+ was 5.00 mg/L. After 8 weeks of chronic exposure, the final weight and the specific weight growth rate of C. idellus decreased with the increasing Zn2+ concentration, and the differences were significant among the three groups (P < 0.05). The content of ash in the high exposure group was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The dry mass in the two exposure groups and the energy density in the low concentration group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The contents of Zn in the hepatopancreas, gill, intestine, muscle, and whole body in the high concentration group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The contents of Zn in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than those in other organs (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference for the contents of Zn in the intestine and gill in the two Zn exposure groups, but those were significantly higher than those in other organs except hepatopancreas (P < 0.05). The content of Zn in muscle was significantly lower than that in the other organs. It suggests that the pattern of energy allocation of the C. idellus is changed by the Zn exposure. Fat was preferentially used to provide extra energy for the detoxification under the Zn exposure, and the rates of the protein and energy deposited in the body were reduced. Therefore, the growth of the fish was depressed. The C. idellus mainly takes up Zn through the gill and distributes Zn to other tissues via blood circulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological and Histopathological Examinations of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Exposed to Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Paraquat

I. B. Okey, J. J. Ekpenyong, F. U. Inya

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 29-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630348

The study was designed to investigate the sub-lethal effects of paraquat on haematological parameters and histopathology of the gills, skin and liver of Clarias gariepinus juveniles of mean weight (38.26±1.20g) and length (17.50±1.55cm). The fish were exposed to 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of the 96hrsLC50 value of 107mg/l estimated from the 96 hours acute toxicity test. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes for the analyses of some haematological parameters, while the gills, skin and liver were also removed for histological examinations following standard procedures. The result revealed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the values of red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hgb), packed cell volume (PCV) and erythrocytes indices from the control. The white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets (Plt) were however increasing significantly (P < 0.05) from those of the control as the test concentrations increased. The histology of the gills revealed some alterations such as epithelial proliferation, vacuolation of the mucus, hyperplasia of epithelial tissue of the gill filament, lifting and necrosis of the secondary lamellae. The exposed skin showed mucous cell proliferation, erosion of the epithelial lining, hypertrophy, necrosis of epithelial cells and widening of the epidermal and dermal layers. The liver exhibited cellular proliferation, sinusoid enlargement, congestion of the central vein, paranchymatous degeneration, vacuolar degeneration, pyknotic nucleic degeneration, legions and necrosis with severity as concentration of paraquat increases. The gills and skin were observed to be the most affected tissues in this study. The study also revealed that paraquat was toxic to C. gariepinus and causes some haematological and histopathological alterations in the fish blood and tissues at concentrations higher than 30mg/l. Therefore, the use of paraquat by farmers should be regulated particularly in area close to the aquatic environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maximum Sustainable Yield Estimates from Lake Nasser Fisheries, Egypt with Special Reference to Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus using ASPIC Software

Sahar F. Mehanna, Yassein A. Osman, Samia M. El-Mahdy, Ashraf S. Mohammad, Ahmed F. Makkey

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 46-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630349

The lakes’ fisheries play an important role in the Egyptian economy. Egyptian lakes face many challenges such as over-fishing, illegal and destructive fishing methods, human activities and pollution which affected the fish production from it. The lakes’ contribution to the Egyptian fish production decreased from about 50% in 80’s to the only 10% during 2017. Lake Nasser, as one of the largest artificial lakes in the world, plays a significant role in Egyptian fisheries. Its mean annual fish production is about 28,000 ton, this constituted 18% of the total fish harvested from Egyptian lakes. The catch and effort data over 15 years were collected from the lake and analyzed to assess its status and to summerize the main problems facing its development and management. Maximum Sustainable Yield of Nasser lake with special reference to the Nile tilapia, the main species in the lake, is estimated based on catch and effort data from 2003 to 2017. The computer software packages of ASPIC had been used. The surplus production model of Schaefer was applied in this study. The obtained results proved the over exploitation situation for the lake fishery and to achieve the sustainability many applicable measures are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of the Addition Tilapia Skin Collagen Concentration to Lotion Characteristics

Mahezwara Putera Dewangga, Junianto ., Evi Liviawaty, Rusky Intan Pratama

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 60-70
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630350

The purpose of this research was to determine the best concentration of the tilapia skin collagen addition to obtain the characteristics of the lotion in accordance with the established standards. The research was carried out at the Fishery Product Processing Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Central Laboratory of Padjadjaran University and Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Laboratory of Padjadjaran University between March 2021 - June 2021. The method used in this research was experimental with a completely randomized design consisted of 5 treatments with 4 replications added the concentration of the tilapia skin collagen (0%, 4%, 5%, 6% and 7%) based on lotion formulations. Parameters observed included pH, viscosity, spreadability, weight loss, homogeneity and the organoleptic (appearance, color, scent, texture). The conclusion from this research was that the addition of 7% the tilapia skin collagen concentration was the best treatment with a homogeneous appearance, a slightly yellowish white color, a slightly lavender scent and a slightly thick texture. The lotion had pH value of 6.35, viscosity of 7,197 cP, 5.74 cm spreadability and a weight loss of 2.8%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping of Ornamental Fish Farming Cultivation Production Areas in Bogor Regency

Bayu Prasetya, Atikah Nurhayati, Ibnu Bangkit Bioshina Suryadi, Iwang Gumilar

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 71-77
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630351

Aims: Analyze the leading ornamental fish commodities in Bogor Regency and analyze the mapping of ornamental fish farming areas in Bogor Regency.

Place and Duration of Study: Research conducted in Bogor Regency and was carried out from Desember 2020 – September 2021.

Methodology: The method used was a literature study to determine the leading ornamental fish commodities in Bogor Regency and mapping of ornamental fish farming areas in Bogor Regency. After processing the data, the data is analyzed descriptively. Primary data was obtained from interviews with 1 key person at the Department of Fisheries and Livestock, Bogor Regency. Secondary data is obtained through reports from several documents including the Annual Report 2015 – 2019 from the Bogor Regency Fisheries and Livestock Service, Gross Regional Domestic Product (PDRB) 2015 – 2019 Bogor Regency, Bogor Regency Medium Term Development Plan 2018-2023.

Results: The results of this study indicate that the main ornamental fish commodities in Bogor Regency are oscars, corydoras, guppies, bettas, black ghosts, rainbows, manfish and goldfish. The leading areas for ornamental fish production in Bogor Regency are the Subdistrict of Kemang, Megamendung, Tenjolaya, Cibinong, Ciseeng, Nanggung, and Ciampea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect Collagen Concentration Tilapia Scales on the Quality of Burn Ointment

Muhammad Firham Ramadhan, Junianto ., Rusky Intan Pratama, Iis Rostini

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 87-95
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630353

Collagen is one of the main connective tissue animal proteins and has been widely used as a biomedical material. Collagen is divided into XIX types. Type I collagen, among others, is obtained from bone, scales and skin. Collagen derived from type I can repair tissue or accelerate tissue regeneration to heal burns. The purpose of this research was to determine the addition of fish scale collagen extract to the characteristics of the burn ointment preparation in accordance with the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) and the best quality. The method used in this research is an experimental method of Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisting of 4 collagen addition treatments: 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% repeated 5 times. Parameters in this method include physical-chemical parameters (pH, spreadability, shelf life and homogeneity) and organoleptic parameters (appearance, aroma, texture and color). Bayes test results, the concentration of the addition of tilapia scale collagen in the ointment preparation of 4% resulted in a value close to the control treatment. The addition of 4% collagen was the best treatment compared to 2% and 6% with a pH value of 6.12, dispersion of 3.22 cm, safe ointment preparation did not change at all during 28 days of storage. Based on the results of the organoleptic test parameters, the ointment at this concentration had a homogeneous appearance, slightly yellowish white color, a distinctive smell of collagen and a semi-solid texture, this was in accordance with the quality standard of the ointment and had the best quality characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transportation of Blackmoor (Carassius auratus) Goldfish Variety with Low-Temperature Treatment at Different Durations

Walim Lili, Roffi Grandiosa Herman, Raihan Achmad Yusuf, Iskandar .

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 114-122
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630356

This research aims to analyze the induction time and recovery time of Blackmoor Goldfish (Carrasius auratus) with different low temperatures as a transportation method, to find out how to handle it with a proper temperature reduction in its transportation, and to find out the optimum time period in its transportation This study was carried out from November 2020 to February 2021 in the Ciparanje wet laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran. This research was conducted experimentally using the Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) which consisted of two factors, namely four levels of treatment (12 °C, 16 °C, 20 °C, and 24°C (control)) and three levels of transportation duration (3, 5, and 7 hours) which were repeated three times. This research uses a closed transportation system. The research results showed that the low-temperature treatment of 16°C and a transportation duration of 3 hours was the best treatment with an induction time of 02:37, recovery time of 07:13, and having a post-transportation survival rate of 90% and post-maintenance for 7 days of 85 %. The DO parameter is ±7.53 mg/L, pH is ± 7.38 and ammonia is ±0.0016 mg/L.

Open Access Review Article

Application of IoT-based Technology in Vaname Shrimp Cultivation: A Systematic Literature

Fittrie Meyllianawaty Pratiwy, Adinda Kinasih Jacinda, Ayi Yustiati

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Page 96-106
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i630354

Vaname shrimp is one type of shrimp that the people of Indonesia widely cultivate. However, there are several problems in the failure of vaname shrimp production, including poor water quality during the maintenance period, especially in ponds. Based on the selection of inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality assessment, it was found that the use of technology in cultivation activities will help streamline time, energy, and human resources so that decision-making can be made faster. The technology used is limited to water quality monitoring, disease monitoring, and EMS. The methods used to create IoT-based technology are hardware devices, software tools, function tests, and user tests. The smaller the error value, the more accurate the data obtained.