Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Cowries in the Different Ecological Habitats in the Selected Sites in Davao Occidental

Lorah May C. Caalim, Diego G. Catulinan, Michelle M. Elemino

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Volume 21, Issue 1, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2023/v21i1524

Aims: The primary aim of this study was to assess the species of cowries in the different ecological habitats of Barangay Buhangin, Tubalan, and Tanglad, Davao Occidental. Specifically, it sought to identify species of cowries found in the study area, population density, abundance, and diversity.

Place and Duration of Study: Barangay Buhangin, Tubalan, and Tanglad, Davao Occidental, April 10 – 30, 2022.

Methodology: The study employed a transect-line-quadrat method. There were three stations were established in the selected areas. The quadrat was used to determine the density, abundance, dominance, and diversity of cowries. A 1m x 1m quadrat was thrown randomly on the established layout of 50 ㎡ (25m x 2m) parallel to the shore. Gears, such as diving goggles and snorkel were used to determine the cowries inside the quadrat and were hand-picked for species identification.

Results: The study revealed that there were ten (10) species of cowries recorded and identified. In Station 1 (Barangay Buhangin), seven species were found namely: Monetaria annulus (Gold ring cowry), Cypraea tigris (Tiger cowry), Mauritia arabica (Arabian cowry), Monetaria caputserpentis (Serpent’s head cowry), Naria erosa (Eroded cowry), Monetaria moneta (Money cowry) and Luria isabella (Fawn-coloured cowry). In Station 2 (Barangay Tubalan) two species were recorded and identified, namely: Cypraea tigris (Tiger cowry) and Mauritia arabica (Arabian cowry), while in Station 3 (Barangay Tanglad), eight species were recorded and identified, these were: Monetaria annulus (Gold ring cowry), Cypraea tigris (Tiger cowry), Mauritia arabica (Arabian cowry), Naria erosa (Eroded cowry), Monetaria moneta (Money cowry), Lyncina vitellus (Calf cowry), Lyncina lynx (Eyed cowry), and Palmadusta asellus (Littleass cowry). In Station 1, Coral Reef Habitat has the most diverse species with five (5) species found, while the seagrass bed habitat is the most abundant in terms of population with nine (9) cowries found, and the mangrove habitat only houses one (1) species of cowry with a population of three (3).

Conclusion: Station 3 was the most diverse in terms of cowry species with 8 species identified. Station 1 and Station 2 have the highest population of juvenile cowry species with a total of 127 juvenile species, and Station 2 has the highest population of adult cowry species with a total of 17 adult species. There were four (4) cowry species found in the mangrove habitat, four (4) cowry species were also found in the seagrass bed habitat and nine (9) cowry species were found in the coral reef habitat thus making it the most diverse among all ecological habitats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modification of Protein Hydrolyzate of Snakehead Fish as an Ingredient for Instant Seasoning Coto Makassar

Sri Udayana Tartar, Muhammad Fitri, Ikbal Syukroni

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Volume 21, Issue 1, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2023/v21i1525

Aim: This study aimed to determine the ratio formula for the hydrolyzate of snakehead fish head flour and Instant seasoning flour of Coto Makassar.

Study Design: The experimental design used was using an independent t test (independent t-test) namely (Coto Seasoning Flour: HPKIG Flour) / (TC: THPKIG) as follows A = (TC: THPKIG) = 90% : 10% (b /b) and B= (TC: THPKIG) = 80% : 20% (w/b).

Place and Duration of Study: The research had carried out from May 2018 to August 2019, the production of the hydrolyzate of snakehead fish head protein is Coto Makassar seasoning had committed in the Chemistry Laboratory of Agro-industry Study Program, Pangkep State Agricultural Polytechnic, hydrolyzed snakehead fish head protein flour using the spray dryer drying method had brought about at the Center for Plantation Products in Makassar. The physicochemical analysis had done in the Chemical Laboratory, Department of Fisheries Product Processing Technology, Pangkep State Agricultural Polytechnic. Amino acid profile tests using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) method were tested at the Saraswanti Indo Genetec Bogor laboratory. and analysis of volatile compounds had carried out at the Research Center for Flavor Analysis Laboratory of Rice Plants Sukamandi, Subang.

Methodology: The third research is the result of a study of Coto makassar seasoning flour products with the best protein to be applied to Coto Makassar seasoning flour. Applications made were snakehead fish head protein hydrolyzate and Coto seasoning flour treated with a ratio of 100% (Coto Seasoning Flour: HPKIG Flour) / (TC: THPKIG) was as follows (TC: THPKIG)1 = 90%: 10% (w/b) and (TC: THPKIG)2 = 80% : 20% (w/b). The best treatment result was carried out by the preference test on the protein coto seasoning produced, namely the study of the best ratio formula of 20 grams dissolved in boiling water A = 150 mL, B = 200 mL C = 250 mL.

Results: Characteristics of the application of 20% snakehead fish head protein hydrolyzate flour and 80% coto seasoning flour obtained a brightness value of L* 59.23%, hue 67.13%, moisture content 10.19%, ash content 11.48%, protein content 64.20%, 1.26% fat content and 3.35% albumin content. The highest amino acid is glutamic acid 20.68%. Sensory value of taste sample application of fish head protein hydrolyzate in coto Makassar seasoning 20% ​​with the addition of 200 mL of water Assessment criteria 8 (Very like) panelists prefer it because it feels the more spicy sensation

Conclusion: The result of the analysis obtained by the best treatment are the characteristics of the application of 20% hydrolyzed protein from snakehead fish head flour and 80% coto seasoning flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa Leaf Extract as a Natural Preservative against the Deterioration of Tilapia Fillet during Room Temperature Storage

Alvina Triana Putri, Rusky Intan Pratama, M. S. Yuniarti, Iis Rostini

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Volume 21, Issue 1, Page 19-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2023/v21i1526

This research was conducted to determine the percentage of moringa leaf extract to inhibit the deterioration of the quality of the tilapia fillet as a natural preservative against organoleptic characteristics during room temperature storage. This research was carried out at the Processing of Fishery Products Laboratory, the Aquaculture Laboratory of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, and the Central Laboratory of Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor. The research method used is experimental. Namely, a tilapia fillet soaked using different concentrations during room temperature storage. The organoleptic test (scoring test) was analyzed by Friedman's non-parametric statistical method consisting of 4 treatments and 20 semi-trained panelists as the number tests. In contrast, the pH testing of the tilapia fillet was analyzed by a descriptive method. Tilapia fillet with Moringa leaf extract soaking treatment consists of 0%, 4%, 8%, and 12% (v/v) for 30 minutes of soaking, then stored at room temperature (25°C-28°C).  Observations occur once every 2 hours, namely at the 0, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, 14th, and 16th hours. The parameters observed included organoleptic characteristics with 20 semi-trained panelists and a value of the tilapia fillet's degree of acidity (pH). The best use of moringa leaf extract at 8% appearance with an organoleptic value of 7.5, aroma of 7.7, and texture of 7.0 with a pH value of 6.8 to 16 hours storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Behavioural and Haematological Alterations in the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Exposed to Varying Concentrations of Glyphosate

Ifeoma C. Edeh, Charity I. Nsofor, Stanley C. Iheanacho, Chukwumaije C. Ikechukwu, Ijem A. Nnachi, Chidimma G. Nwankwo

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Volume 21, Issue 1, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2023/v21i1527

Extensive use of herbicides poses a serious threat to aquatic life due to runoff from treated fields. A static bioassay method was used to evaluate the toxicity of acute exposure to glyphosate on Clarias gariepinus behaviour and haematological parameters. Glyphosate was tested at varying concentrations (0.72, 1.44, 2.16, and 2.88 mg/l (control), 0.72, 1.44, 2.16, and 2.88 mg/l) for 96 hours in the laboratory. Significant (P < .05) dose-dependent behavioural and morphological changes of respiratory disturbance, erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, mucous secretion, and mortality were recorded in the surviving fish. Erythrocyte (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and leukocyte (WBC) values decreased significantly (P < .05) in treated fish as compared with controls. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were not significantly different (P >.05) between the treated and control fish. Insignificant dose-dependent changes in the counts of neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils were also induced by glyphosate. The variations seen in this study demonstrated that glyphosate had a detrimental effect on the health of the fish. Educating farmers on recommended modes for the administration of glyphosate-herbicides on farmlands should be implemented and enhanced.

Open Access Review Article

The use of Fermented Feed on the Growth of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): A Review

Fittrie Meyllianawaty Pratiwy, Dini Agustiani

Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Volume 21, Issue 1, Page 43-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajfar/2023/v21i1528

Feed is the most important factor that must be considered for fish growth. Feed is also an important factor and affects the survival and growth of fish. The growth of tilapia is very dependent on physical and chemical influences and their interactions. Tilapia fish are included in omnivorous fish or all-eating. These fish can breed with a variety of foods, both animals and plants. Tilapia when it is still in the form of seeds, its food is plankton and moss, while when it is an adult, it can be given additional food in the form of artificial feed. The purpose of this study was to find out how the use of fermented feed on the growth of tilapia and the addition of fermented doses of 2% to 6%. The method used is a descriptive exploratory method from various previous research literature, both from national journals and international journals: Research Gate, Directory of Open Access Journals and Google Scholar. Fermentation is microbial activity in food to produce the desired product. Microbes that are generally involved in fermentation are bacteria, yeast and mold. Fermentation will simplify the particles in the feed ingredients so that it will increase the nutritional value of the feed. The results of the addition of fermentation to feed greatly affect the growth of tilapia with research giving doses of 2 to 6% fermented products with the highest growth, FCR and survival.